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  • This video is sponsored by Raid: Shadow Legends.

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  • Brain surgeon Dr. Ben Carson thinks they used to store grain.

  • Many people believe aliens built them.

  • Egyptologists really want you to understand that neither of those things are true, but

  • get ready for 50 insane facts about the pyramids you never knew before.

  • 50.

  • The pyramids were for a long time the tallest structures ever built by man.

  • For almost 3,000 years they would remain in the top spot until the Lincoln Cathedral came

  • around in 1311 AD.

  • 49.

  • The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only surviving member of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World

  • Club.

  • The other wonders included the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Colossus of Rhodes, the

  • Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Temple of Artemis, and

  • the Hanging Gardens of Babylon- which archaeologists are still unsure really existed.

  • 48.

  • Despite what numerous Youtube channels which usually have the word 'Gaia' or 'enlightened'

  • in the name will tell you, archaeologists have a very good idea of how the pyramids

  • were built, and no, they required zero alien technology.

  • 47.

  • The only thing required to build the pyramids was a few primitive tools such as chisels,

  • hammers, and lathes, along with a bonkers amount of laborers and an equally nuts amount

  • of time.

  • We're talking tens of thousands of people and decades to construct each pyramid.

  • 46.

  • The Great Pyramid of Giza took 20,000 workers an estimated 20 years to build.

  • 45.

  • The incredible accuracy and levelling shown in the pyramid's construction was achieved

  • with nothing more than a plumb bob- a tool still used today and almost completely unchanged

  • since its ancient form.

  • This tool is a simple pointed weight suspended by a cord, and when it hung straight up and

  • down an architect knew the ground they were standing on was level.

  • 44.

  • Some believe that the humble plumb bob also aided the Egyptians in achieving incredible

  • accuracy in the fields of astronomy and navigation as well.

  • Like we said, no alien tech required- just simple human ingenuity.

  • 43.

  • Many of the construction materials used in the pyramids are still used today.

  • Gypsum mortar- made from plaster and sand- was used to lubricate the stones as they were

  • moved and set in place, and is still used in the driest parts of the world today.

  • 42.

  • Each stone used in the construction of a pyramid weighs an average of 2.5 tons, and was quarried

  • miles from the construction site.

  • Archaeologists believe that a clever system of canals allowed the workers to simply float

  • the stones to the construction site.

  • 41.

  • For years it was believed that the Egyptians built ramps to haul the stones up the outside

  • of the pyramid and move them into place.

  • A new theory however posits that much like an igloo, the Egyptians actually built the

  • pyramid from the inside out.

  • 40.

  • In their heyday, the pyramids would've looked even more glamorous than today.

  • Each pyramid was wrapped in an outer facade of white limestone, and capped with a pinnacle

  • made of precious metals or more limestone which would reflect sunlight for miles.

  • The white limestone and the pyramid caps have long ago been stripped for building materials

  • or eroded away.

  • 39.

  • Each pyramid's low center of gravity, relative environmental stability, and the dry environment

  • of Egypt, helped to ensure that they remain standing to this day.

  • 38.

  • Oh so you like the pyramids?

  • Name all of them.

  • Good luck, because there's actually over 100 of them.

  • Much like being a Hemsworth brother though, everyone only knows- or cares about- the famous

  • ones.

  • 37.

  • It's believed that construction of a new pyramid took place during the flooding seasons, when

  • the Nile would overflow and make farming impossible.

  • The farmers would leave their fields and become construction workers for a few months.

  • 36.

  • The Great Sphinx was erected near the pyramids of Giza in order to watch over them.

  • The human face of the Sphinx is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafret, who's pyramid

  • is directly behind the Sphinx, and the lion's body symbolized his immortality.

  • 35.

  • For centuries legend held that some of Napoleon's soldiers blew the nose off the Sphinx with

  • a cannon.

  • However, sketches of the Sphinx from well before Napoleon's time show that the Sphinx

  • was missing its nose as far back as 1737.

  • 34.

  • In the 15th century an Arab historian wrote that the nose was destroyed by a Sufi Muslim

  • named Muhammad Sa'im al-Dahr.

  • He was outraged at Egyptian peasants praying and making offerings to the Sphinx in exchange

  • for limiting the effects of the yearly floods.

  • Seeing this as heresy, Sa'im al-Dahr destroyed the nose, and was rewarded with an execution

  • for vandalism.

  • 33.

  • Despite speculation from fringe sources, the pyramids are widely accepted as having been

  • built to serve as tombs for Egypt's greatest pharaohs.

  • Or you can choose to believe they're navigation aids for ancient aliens- if you think aliens

  • were smart enough to fly across the galaxy but too stupid to invent GPS.

  • 32.

  • In ancient Egypt the 1% were better than you even in the afterlife.

  • Serving as tombs for the pharaohs, each pyramid once housed untold riches that the dead pharaoh

  • would enjoy in the afterlife.

  • Hate to break it to you, but even after you die you'll still be just another peasant.

  • 31.

  • For centuries it was believed that slaves were used in constructing the pyramids, however

  • new findings are pointing at a highly skilled and well-paid work force- which would help

  • explain the incredible craftsmanship and durability of these ancient buildings.

  • 30.

  • Despite having been packed with untold riches, no treasure was ever discovered inside the

  • largest of the Pyramids, the Great Pyramid of Giza.

  • It's believed grave robbers plundered the site well over a thousand years ago.

  • 29.

  • During the early days of pyramid construction, when a wealthy noble died they were entombed

  • with their still living slaves and all of their flocks of animals.

  • Eventually someone decided that putting dozens of people and hundreds of animals to death

  • every time some rich boomer died was a massive waste of money, and the practice was discontinued.

  • Just imagine going to work tomorrow and finding out you were going to be buried alive because

  • your boss died.

  • 28.

  • Despite being 100% dead, some pyramids came equipped with private bathrooms for the deceased

  • Pharaoh.

  • 27.

  • Some of the larger building blocks towards the base of a pyramid weighed over 70 tons,

  • or more than an elephant.

  • 26.

  • The ancient Egyptians built pyramids over a span of a whopping 1,000 years, prompting

  • many Egyptologists to believe that many dozens- or even hundreds- of pyramids lay undiscovered

  • under several feet of sand.

  • 25.

  • Because of its shape, over 80% of all the stone used to construct a pyramid is actually

  • located on the bottom half.

  • 24.

  • Researchers were able to verify the age and quarried location of stones used to build

  • the Sphinx and some pyramids by studying fossils held within the stones themselves.

  • 23.

  • The three pyramids at Giza are the largest pyramids ever built by the Egyptians, either

  • before or after their construction.

  • 22.

  • Working on a pyramid was considered highly prestigious, and often the laborers themselves

  • would be rewarded with burial tombs that surrounded the pyramid- quite the upgrade from being

  • buried in a tiny family tomb carved onto a cliff somewhere.

  • 21.

  • 'Worker cities' had to be constructed to house and feed the massive army of laborers required

  • to build a pyramid.

  • These cities lay undiscovered for centuries, the tell-tale architecture overlooked by Egyptologists

  • due to the splendor of the pyramids themselves and the treasures sometimes discovered alongside

  • mummies.

  • 20.

  • A photographer setting up for a photo accidentally discovered a burial chamber filled with riches

  • belonging to Queen Hetepheres.

  • As he set his tripod up for a photo of an ongoing dig, his tripod leg punched through

  • the desert sand and into a hidden shaft that led directly to the underground chamber.

  • 19.

  • The discovery of massive amounts of cow bones near an ancient worker's city helped solidify

  • the theory that skilled laborers, not slaves, were responsible for constructing the pyramids.

  • At a time when meat was an extremely rare meal for most people, these pyramid workers

  • were regularly feasting on young, tender beef.

  • 18.

  • Graffiti discovered inside pyramids revealed that workers gave their groups names, such

  • asFriends of Khufuor our favorite, “Drunkards of Menkaure”.

  • Seems the ancient egyptians had pretty much the same sense of humor as modern humans.

  • 17.

  • The early Egyptians kind of sucked at building pyramids.

  • Despite knowing that hundreds of pyramids were built over a thousand years, few remain

  • clearly identifiable today.

  • It's believed that early Egyptians gradually got better over time at building their massive

  • pyramids, and that a lack of skill early on led to catastrophic collapses and severe weather

  • erosion of the early pyramids.

  • 16.

  • The Egyptians aligned their tombs on a north-south line with astonishing accuracy- to within

  • .05 degrees.

  • Despite, once more, claims that it took alien technology, astronomers believe this would

  • have been simple to accomplish by simply carefully observing the path of the sun, or perhaps

  • watching a single star as it circled over the north pole and then aligning with the

  • center of that circle.

  • 15.

  • Their accuracy wasn't consistent however.

  • Archaeologists have discovered that the accuracy of the pyramids improved steadily up to the

  • building of the Great Pyramid, and then deteriorated again.

  • Modern astronomers tracking the path stars took over the last few thousand years revealed

  • that this was explainable if the builders were using stars in the Big Dipper and the

  • Little Dipper to align their pyramids.

  • Over time, as the stars moved through space, their alignment would slowly shift towards

  • and away from true north.

  • 14.

  • A testament to the endurance of the pyramids, an old Arab proverb roughly translates as,

  • Man fears time, time fears the pyramids.”

  • 13.

  • A whopping 500,000 tons of mortar helps keep the Great Pyramid together.

  • 12.

  • Cosmic particles helped scientists detect a secret chamber inside the Great Pyramid

  • of Giza.

  • Muons, an elementary particle and cousin to the electron, zip through space all the time,

  • and can travel through solid rock.

  • Using a muon detector, scientists were able to map the inside of the Great Pyramid, detecting

  • areas where less muons were being absorbed by the stone and thus revealing a 30 meter

  • cavity inside the pyramid.

  • 11.

  • Fearing doing damage to the pyramid itself- or perhaps trying to protect the world from

  • a vengeful undead pharaoh seeking to devour all human flesh- the Egyptian government has

  • not approved any plan to explore the mysterious cavity.

  • 10.

  • Other, much smaller, hidden chambers have also been discovered using remotely operated

  • vehicles crawling along shafts too small for humans to enter.

  • The discovery of metal pins in one of the hidden spaces led many to speculate that the

  • egyptians- or the aliens who guided them- had used electric wiring.

  • However on closer inspection, the pins were discovered to be purely ornamental.

  • 9.

  • Blocking stones bar the way of further exploration by ROV of many of these secret chambers.

  • The only way to discover what lies beyond would be to engage in very destructive digging

  • through the pyramid itself, something the Egyptian government would never allow.

  • 8.

  • One robot drilled a small hole through a blocking stone and inserted a small camera... only

  • to discover a small chamber with yet a second, larger blocking stone behind.

  • Whatever secret the Egyptians had hidden there was something they really did not want rediscovered.

  • 7.

  • Not every pyramid is pointed.

  • Many egyptian pyramids- specially their earliest ones- were 'stepped pyramids', with a large,

  • flat top.

  • 6.

  • The Great Pyramid of Khufu weighs an estimated 5,750,000 tons.

  • Compare that with the weight of the Burj Khalifa at 500,000 tons.

  • The Egyptians clearly knew what they were doing when it came to building very large

  • things.

  • 5.

  • In 1877, a Dr. Joseph Seiss believed that he had discovered that the Great Pyramid of

  • Giza is located at exactly the intersection of the longest line of longitude and the longest

  • line of latitude.

  • This however is not true, as the equator is the longest line of latitude and all longitudinal

  • lines are the same length.

  • That hasn't stopped nearly 150 years of conspiracy theorists from regurgitating the long-debunked

  • claim as proof of alien conspiracy.

  • 4.