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  • Hi. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is auxiliary verbs. You don't have to be scared

  • of that word, "auxiliary", because it's a grammar word. Basically, what they are is

  • they're helper verbs. They are not the most important verb in the sentence, but they're

  • important so we know what tense it is. So the reason I made this lesson today is I found

  • that people who taught English to themselves get to a point where some confusion comes

  • in because if you're watching videos about learning English and things like that, sometimes,

  • you're going to hear grammar words that you're not sure about. And then, some confusion can

  • happen. So if the teacher says, "Find the verb in the sentence", sometimes, what happens

  • is you just find the verb you know, but you don't realize that it's not the important

  • verb there. So the whole idea of this lesson is to just teach you a bit of grammar so that

  • you don't get confused in the future when you're watching videos and things like that.

  • So yeah. They're helper verbs. They're not the most important verb in the sentence. There

  • can be more than one of them in a sentence and even still not being the main verb. It's

  • important because it will help you to recognize the tense, the different tenses of English.

  • Maybe you don't use all the tenses actively, but it's still good to be able to recognize

  • them. And also, the most important thing about auxiliary verbs is that it's not helpful for

  • you to directly translate these words because you'll just get a really confusing, confusing

  • meaning. And sometimes, that's a mistake people make. So what we're going to do is go through

  • the different auxiliary verbs in English and look at the different ways that we use them.

  • So the first one you might not think of as being a helping verb, but it's a good example

  • of what I mean when you see the verb, and then you try to translate it, and it doesn't

  • really give you a good meaning; it doesn't really explain what it means well. The best

  • example of that is "be" in the present and past simple. "She is my boss." What does "be"

  • mean? What does it -- what does "be" mean? I don't know. I was personally confused about

  • that even though I didn't need to learn English. And what it's doing is being a linking verb.

  • In grammar terms, all it's doing is joining subject to object. It doesn't carry its own

  • meaning, you could say. So in that sense, the verb isn't that important here. It's the

  • subject and the object that are important.

  • Anyway. The next examples, they start to get a little more complicated, but not too bad.

  • Another example of "be", but this time in the continuous sentence -- in the continuous

  • tenses. "He is sleeping." Let's have a think. What tense is that one? That one is the present

  • continuous. And this one, "They have been talking." This one is the present perfect

  • continuous. And what I mean by "auxiliary verb" in these is that they're not the most

  • important verb in those examples. The most important verb is "sleeping" here. And the

  • most important verb is "talking" here. In this example, the present perfect continuous

  • actually has two auxiliaries because you can have more than one auxiliary verb in a sentence.

  • Next example. "Have" in the perfect tenses. We've got two examples here. We've got, "I've

  • got a car" and, "They had gone home." What tenses are we talking about here? "I've got

  • a car." That one is the present perfect. And what about this one? What's this one? This

  • one is the past perfect. Where's the most important verb? The most important verb is

  • "get" here. We're using it for possession. It means "to own something, to possess something"

  • here. In the second example, the most important verb is "go". This is a past participle. It

  • becomes "gone".

  • Let's move on to "do" -- our first example of "do". When we're making a negative sentence

  • in the present simple or the past simple, in the negative form, we use "do". Let's look

  • at the examples. "I do not like Peter." I'm sorry, Peter. "Do" shows us that we're making

  • a negative sentence. What's the most important verb? The most important verb is "like". What

  • about next example? "We didn't go." Again -- naughty me -- no full stop. The most important

  • verb is "go". There's our negative, this time in a contracted form.

  • Next example of "do" is in questions. What does "do" mean in a question? "Do" basically

  • means I'm asking a question now. For example, "Do you like London?" Yes, I do. I like London.

  • And now, we're talking about "will" as an auxiliary verb. It can mean two things. It

  • can mean the future tense -- "I will be there later." And "will" shows us we're talking

  • about the future. But it's not the most important verb. The most important verb is "be". And

  • our other way -- another meaning of "will", you could say, is to express certainty. So

  • in this other sentence, "You will like this", we're not talking about a future time. We're

  • just trying to express certainty about something. But it's not our most important verb because

  • it's an auxiliary verb. Our most important verb, again, is "like".

  • Now, talking about modal verbs, we use modal verbs when we're talking about necessity or

  • the probability of something. And this group of verbs isn't ever the most important verb

  • in the sentence in terms of grammar. So here's an example. "They might help you." Our most

  • important verb is "help".

  • We have other modal verbs as well, but, you know, "might", "may", "should", "must" are

  • the modal verbs.

  • And the last auxiliary verb we're going to talk about is "would", and we use "would"

  • for talking about hypothetical situations. And "hypothetical" means imagined. Not true

  • situations, but we're using it to think about something in the future imagined or something

  • in the past imagined. But it's not the most important verb for meaning. The most important

  • verb for meaning in this sentence is "do".

  • Now, I realize we've been talking a lot about, "Oh, this auxiliary verb, does this, does

  • this, does this" -- but let's come back and look at how to find the main verb in the sentence

  • because that will be useful for you whenever you need to really find the meaning in the

  • sentence.

  • Let's have a look at my tips for finding the main verb in the sentence because it's sometimes

  • really needed to find the main verb so you can understand the full meaning of the sentence.

  • And just knowing what auxiliaries are, they can help you find the main verb. So we'll

  • look at the tips, and that should help you not have really bad grammar confusion, hopefully

  • in the future.

  • So tip No. 1: We can find the main verb after "is", "was", or "were" in the present or past

  • continuous. We've got some examples here. "I was eating pizza." That's the past continuous.

  • And, "They were singing". That's also the past continuous. And the main verb is coming

  • after "was" and after "were".

  • Next example. Tip No. 2: after "have" or "has" in the present perfect; or after "had" in

  • the past perfect. Let's look at examples. "We have got a dog" or "We've got a dog" in

  • the contracted speech form. After "have" -- because this is the present perfect -- our main verb

  • is "get", but we're using it in that way that I mentioned to you before, to mean possession.

  • So all together, this means, "I own a dog" or, "I possess a dog." In the present perfect,

  • our main verb is here. "Have" is not our most important verb.

  • Next example. "I had had fun." That maybe looks wrong or weird to you to see "had" together

  • twice. Sometimes people get confused about it. But it's actually okay to say that. We

  • have "had", and then, our main verb here is "had". "I had had fun." And that's the past

  • perfect tense.

  • Moving on for tip No. 3: We can find the main verb after "have been" or "has been" or after

  • "had been" in the perfect tense, in the perfect continuous tenses. Let's take a look at some

  • examples. "They have been lying." In these examples, we have two auxiliaries; we have

  • two helper verbs. "Had" is a helper verb; "been" is a helper verb; and our main verb

  • is "lying". It comes from the verb "lie" -- "to tell a lie." Let's look at the next example.

  • "He had been sleeping." This one is the past perfect continuous. Again, we've got two helper

  • verbs here, "had", "been" -- helping verbs. Our main verb is "sleeping". That's the most

  • important one to carry meaning.

  • Tip No. 4: after the modal verb or after the modal verb followed by other auxiliaries.

  • And I didn't write you an example there. So let me give you one. "I might have told you

  • earlier" or, "I might have given you an example." So after the modal verb "might" comes "have

  • given". "I might have given." We have one auxiliary verb there, "have". "I might have

  • given you an example on the board."

  • And our last example -- this is probably an easier way if you can remember this one. After

  • "been". After "been" is the main verb. "I have been thinking."

  • So these tips are all useful to find the main verb. This is a general grammar lesson to

  • mainly just stop that confusion that happens sometimes when you know little bits of grammar,

  • but it's not all together up there in your head. Knowing and finding the main verb is

  • really useful -- a lot. It can save you confusion when you're doing exercises and things like

  • that. It's really helpful. So we're finished for the lesson, but if you want to do a quiz,

  • you can find the quiz at www.engvid.com. You can answer questions about this. And what

  • I'd also like you to do is subscribe to this channel. This is my personal channel here

  • on EngVid. If you like my lessons -- because I make all kinds of other lessons about learning

  • English, which I really want you to watch if you like watching me. And... I am finished

  • now! But I want you to come back. Come back soon for more English with me. And until then,

  • bye-bye.

Hi. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is auxiliary verbs. You don't have to be scared

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A2 UK main verb auxiliary sentence auxiliary verb main continuous

Basic English Grammar: What is an auxiliary verb?

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    Ashley Chen posted on 2014/07/28
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