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  • ♪ ♪ ♪ >> Stephen: HEY, EVERYBODY.

  • WE'RE BACK WITH THE AUTHOR OF "COSMIC QUERIES," NEIL deGRASSE

  • TYSON.

  • YOU GOT A NEW BOOK HERE.

  • IT'S OUT TODAY.

  • IT'S CALLED "COSMIC QUERIES," OKAY, ADDRESSING QUESTIONS LIKE,

  • "WHAT IS LIFE?

  • HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN?

  • WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE BIG QUESTION TO PONDER, NEIL TYSON?

  • >> YEAH, SO, I HAVE MANY BIG QUESTIONS TO PONDER.

  • WHAT I LIKE ABOUT BIG QUESTIONS IS THAT THEY DON'T-- YOU CAN'T

  • SEAL THEM UP IN A TIDY ANSWER.

  • THEY'RE THESE DANGLING EDGES THAT FORCE YOU TO KEEP THINKING

  • AND ADDING PIECES AND PARTS TO IT.

  • SO, FOR EXAMPLE, HOW WILL IT ALL END?

  • ALL RIGHT.

  • SO THERE'S HOW EARTH ENDS, BUT THAT'S BORING.

  • WE ALREADY KNOW THAT.

  • BUT HOW WILL THE UNIVERSE -- >> Stephen: WAIT, HOW WILL

  • EARTH END?

  • >> WE GOT THIS ONE.

  • I WANT TO GET TO-- OKAY.

  • >> Stephen: ONE SENTENCE.

  • COME ON, WHATEVER.

  • THE SUN EXPANDS?

  • THE SUN EXPANDS?

  • >> YEAH, THE SUN EXPANDS.

  • >> Stephen: FINE, MOVE ON.

  • WAS THAT SO HARD?

  • >> IT'S DEADLY.

  • SO THE SUN EXPANDS, EARTH GETS HOT, OCEANS ENTER A ROLLING

  • BOIL, EVAPORATE INTO THE ATMOSPHERE.

  • THE ATMOSPHERE EVAPORATES INTO SPACE.

  • AND EARTH BECOMES THIS CHARRED EMBER AS WE DESCEND INTO THE

  • CALDERON THAT IS THE SURFACE OF THE SUN.

  • AND IT IS THERE THAT WE VAPORIZE.

  • >> Stephen: THAT'S ALL, FOLKS.

  • OKAY, NOW WHAT'S THE BIG ENDING YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT?

  • >> THE BIG ENDING-- NO, THE UNIVERSE IS ACCELERATING IN ITS

  • EXPANSION, WHICH SOUNDS PEACEFUL ENOUGH, OKAY.

  • I DON'T-- I DON'T HAVE A PROBLEM WITH THAT.

  • UNTIL YOU REALIZE THAT THAT ACCELERATION WILL NOT ONLY

  • OCCUPANT STRIP ALL GRAVITATIONAL FORCES CURRENTLY HOLDING THINGS

  • TOGETHER.

  • IF THAT ACCELERATION CONTINUES -- AND THERE'S NO REAL REASON TO

  • DOUBT IT AT THIS POINT-- IT WILL EVENTUALLY OVERCOME MOLECULAR

  • BONDS THAT ARE HOLDING YOUR FLESH TOGETHER.

  • >> Stephen: WAIT A SECOND-- >> I'M NOT DONE.

  • >> Stephen: ARE YOU SAYING I'M EXPANDING, TOO?

  • >> NOT YET, BECAUSE THE MOLECULAR FORCES REMAIN STRONGER

  • THAN THE ACCELERATING FORCES IN THE UNIVERSE.

  • BUT THE ACCELERATING FORCES WILL CONTINUE TO GAIN STRENGTH AS WE

  • EXPAND.

  • BECAUSE IT'S A PROPERTY OF THE VACUUM.

  • AND THE BIGGER THE UNIVERSE, IS THE MORE VACUUM WE HAVE.

  • ASK THIS WILL CONTINUE, RIP YOUR MOLECULES APART, AND THEN IT

  • WILL RIP YOUR ATOMS APART.

  • AND THEN THERE'S A POINT WHERE IT RIPS-- I SHOULDN'T SAY RIP.

  • IT SEPARATES THEM.

  • THEN THE VERY FABRIC OF SPACE AND TIME ITSELF WILL FALL VICTIM

  • TO THIS EXPANSION.

  • AND WE CALL THAT "THE BIG RIP."

  • AND I AM TERRIFIED WHAT THAT WOULD LOOK LIKE AND WHAT WOULD

  • FEEL LIKE.

  • AND I LAY WEAK AT NIGHT LOOKING UP AT THE CEILING WONDERING.

  • >> Stephen: WOULDN'T THERE BE SOME TREMENDOUS RELEASE OF

  • ENERGY ON EACH OF THESE BONDS BEING TORN?

  • >> SO, WHAT HAPPENS IS YOU GET THE-- SO, THERE ARE OTHER

  • SCENARIOS IN THE UNIVERSE WHERE YOU HAVE TREMENDOUS RELEASES OF

  • ENERGY, AND YOU MAKE BASICALLY OTHER BIG BANGZ.

  • THIS IS HOW YOU GET THE MULTIVERSE.

  • BY THE WAY, THERE ARE LAYERS OF MULTIVERSES THAT ARE CURRENTLY

  • -- >> Stephen: DID I JUST-- DID I

  • JUST REASON MY WAY TONDING THE MULTIVERSE, NEIL?

  • >> A LITTLE BIT.

  • YOU WERE-- I WILL GIVE YOU A B-PLUS ON WHERE YOU WERE HEADED.

  • >> Stephen: I BOAT A BITTY VERSE, A LITTLE BITTY VERSE.

  • >> A B-PLUS AVERSE.

  • >> Stephen: WHY ARE THESE EXPANSIONS ACCELERATING?

  • >> WELL, WE DON'T KNOW, BUT IT IS.

  • WE MEASURE IT.

  • AND WE CALL THE THING THAT'S MAKING THAT HAPPEN "DARK

  • ENERGY."

  • WE COULD CALL IT FRED.

  • IT IS DARK, AND WE DON'T KNOW WHAT IT'S MADE OF OF.

  • IT'S CALLED DARK ENERGY, BUT WE DON'T REALLY KNOW-- BUT WE CAN

  • MEASURE IT AND WE KNOW IT'S REAL.

  • AND IT IS HAPPENING, AND IT IS CURRENTLY OUTSTRIPPING GRAVITY

  • IN THE LARGEST OF SCALES.

  • SO, YEAH-- SO, SO-- IF WE DON'T HAVE THE BIG RIP AND WE JUST

  • EXPAND INTO WHAT WE CALL THE HEAT DEATH, WHERE WE APPROACH

  • ABSOLUTELY ZERO AND NOTHING HAPPENS, THEN THE-- HOW WILL THE

  • WORLD END?

  • NOT WITH A BANG BUT WITH A WHIMPER.

  • NOT IN FIRE, BUT IN ICE.

  • >> Stephen: WELL, NEIL, ON THAT POETIC NOTE, THANK YOU SO

  • MUCH FOR BEING HERE "COSMIC QUERIES: STARTALK'S

  • GUIDE TO WHO WE ARE, HOW WE GOT HERE, AND WHERE WE'RE GOING" IS

  • AVAILABLE NOW.

  • PONDER THE BIGGIES WITH NEIL deGRASSE TYSON.

  • >> IF I CAN LEAVE YOU WITH ONE THOUGHT.

  • LEARN TO LOVE THE QUESTIONS THEMSELVES.

  • BECAUSE THEREIN ARE THE SEEDS OF ALL CURIOSITY AND WONDER.

  • >> Stephen: WHY SHOULD I?

  • ( LAUGHS ) WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK WITH A

  • SPECIAL PERFORMANCE BY JON BATISTE.

  • ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪

♪ ♪ ♪ >> Stephen: HEY, EVERYBODY.

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    林宜悉 posted on 2021/03/03
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