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  • Erikson's Theory of Psycho-social Development

  • identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual

  • should pass through from birth to death.

  • At each stages we encounter different needs,

  • ask new questions and meet people

  • who influence our behaviour and learning.

  • Stage 1 "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust"

  • #Infancy (1-2 years)

  • As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world

  • and we wonder if it's safe.

  • We learn that if we can trust someone now,

  • we can also trust others in the future.

  • If we experience fear,

  • we develop doubt and mistrust.

  • The key to our development is our mother.

  • Stage 2 "Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt"

  • #Early childhood (2-4 years)

  • In our early childhood,

  • we experience ourselves and discover our body.

  • We ask: is it okay to be me?

  • If we are allowed to discover ourselves,

  • then we develop self-confidence.

  • If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt.

  • Both parents now play a major role.

  • Stage 3 "Initiative vs. Guilt"

  • #Preschool Age (4-5 years)

  • In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things,

  • and learn basic principles like how round things roll.

  • We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do?

  • If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests.

  • If we are held back or told that what we do is silly,

  • we can develop guilt.

  • We are now learning from the entire family.

  • Stage 4 "Industry vs. Inferiority"

  • #School Age (5-12 years)

  • Now we discover our own interests

  • and realize that we are different from others.

  • We want to show that we can do things right.

  • We ask if we can make it in this world?

  • If we receive recognition from our teachers

  • or peers we become industrious,

  • which is another word for hard-working.

  • If we get too much negative feedback,

  • we start to feel inferior and lose motivation.

  • Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most.

  • Stage 5 "Identity vs. Role Confusion"

  • #Adolescence (13–19 years)

  • During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles.

  • We are friends, students, children and citizens.

  • Many experience an identity crises.

  • If our parents now allow us to go out and explore,

  • we can find identity.

  • If they push us to conform to their views,

  • we can face role confusion and feel lost.

  • Key to our learning are our peers and role models.

  • Stage 6 "Intimacy vs. Isolation"

  • #Early Adulthood (20-40 years)

  • As young adults we slowly understand who we are

  • and we start to let go of the relationships

  • we had built earlier in order to fit in.

  • We ask ourselves if we can love?

  • If we can make a long-term commitment,

  • we are confident and happy.

  • If we cannot form intimate relationships,

  • we might end up feeling isolated and lonely.

  • Our friends and partners are now center to our development.

  • Stage 7 "Generativity vs. Stagnation"

  • #Adulthood (40-65)

  • When we reach our forties we become comfortable,

  • use our leisure time creatively

  • and maybe begin contributing to society.

  • Our concern is Generativity.

  • If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world,

  • we are happy.

  • If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier,

  • we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation.

  • People at home and at work are now who influence us most.

  • Stage 8 "Ego Integrity vs. Despair"

  • #Maturity (65-death)

  • As we grow older we tend to slow down

  • and begin to look back over our lives.

  • We ask: how have I done?

  • If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity.

  • If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter.

  • Time to compare us with mankind.

  • Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist

  • who together with his wife Joan,

  • became known for his work on psychosocial development.

  • He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud

  • and became famous for coining the phrase "Identity crisis."

  • Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree,

  • he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale.

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Erikson's Theory of Psycho-social Development

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B1 US stage development develop identity experience discover

8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

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    Ruby Huang posted on 2021/01/29
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