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  • So you think you got the right stuff that you'd be a great choice to help colonize Mars.

  • Even if there was a crisis, you think you could keep a level head and grow potatoes?

  • Well, hold on their major Tom.

  • There's many dangers to overcome even before you land on the Red Planet.

  • On average, the distance from Mars to Earth is 140 million miles.

  • However, this distance is always fluctuating.

  • Mars is the fourth planet from the sun to Earth's third and has a different and slower orbit path around the sun.

  • Even when Earth and Mars come close together, when Mars is at perihelion and Earth is at a purely in the planet's air, still around 35 million miles apart.

  • And that's a long way to travel.

  • Assuming that humanity can get past political turmoil and funding issues.

  • Tow launch a mission to Mars.

  • The best case scenario is about a 14 month round trip.

  • Rather than firing a spacecraft at Mars, engineers air likely Thio aim it in a wide orbit around the sun, and the sun's gravity would give the spacecraft a boost known as a gravity assist, thereby saving time and fuel the spacecrafts orbit within intersect with Mars.

  • It would take an estimated seven months to reach Mars, a few days for research experiments, sample collection and maybe a minor construction of some sort of permanent dwelling.

  • Then seven months to get back to Earth.

  • So do you think you could handle upwards of 14 months nonstop in space?

  • The trip would be both physiologically and psychologically challenging.

  • In fact, NASA recognizes five classes of stressor that can significantly affect human health and performance on deep space missions.

  • Their radiation altered gravity fields, isolation slash confinement, distance from Earth and hostile closed environments.

  • Space radiation is one of the biggest hazards astronauts will have to contend with during a mission to Mars.

  • Thankfully, the Earth has a protective magnetosphere generated by electric currents in our core, which shields our planet and diverse much of the radiation back into space.

  • Also, stray radiation particles are absorbed by our planet's thick atmosphere.

  • However, beyond low orbit, astronauts would be exposed to space radiation.

  • A report by the European Space Agency estimated that on a mission to Mars, astronauts could receive radiation doses up to 700 times higher than on Earth.

  • Therefore the astronauts would have a significant risk for radiation sickness and increased lifetime risk for cancer and degenerative diseases.

  • Cumulative doses of radiation, such as received during a long space mission, can also damage astronauts central nervous systems as a result of the astronauts.

  • Moods, memory and learning ability might be affected.

  • Of course, the last thing you'd want during interplanetary travel is cognitive impairment.

  • The international space station, or ISS, s, orbits within the magnetosphere, and its hull also has radiation shielding properties.

  • NASA is continuing to explore a variety of materials to create a long haul spacecraft that could provide radiation shielding for its crew without adding significant weight.

  • Currently, study of how radiation affects humans is limited to scientists studying lab animals on Earth.

  • It's hard to generate deep space radiation data without purposefully poisoning some astronauts, but that's just the start of the dangers awaiting you on a trip to Mars.

  • In addition to radiation, there are other physical obstacles that make traveling to Mars dangerous, including microgravity living in zero gravity convene, a temporary loss of a sense of up and down and disruption of appropriate septic system, which tells a human where appendages in other parts of the body are oriented relative to each other.

  • Astronauts generally adjust within in a few days, however, the long term effects of zero gravity are much more strenuous.

  • Muscle atrophy and bone mineral density loss.

  • Studies of cosmonauts and astronauts who had long stays on the Mir space station revealed on average 1 to 2% of bone mass lost each month on a 14 month or longer round trip to Mars.

  • When astronauts arrived home, they may face bone fragility and possible osteoporosis.

  • But what if the trip made you blind to?

  • While diet and exercise aboard a spacecraft can help mitigate the effects of bone density loss, scientists have not yet found a way to combat visual acuity impairments, which occurred due to microgravity.

  • Currently, it's thought that spaceflight associated Nero Ocular Syndrome, or sands, is caused by pressure in the skull.

  • On Earth, gravity pulls cerebral spinal fluid down toward the lower body.

  • In space, more cerebral spinal fluid flows into the head and surrounds the brain.

  • The increased pressure of the fluid works its way down the sheath of the optic nerve and pushes on the back of the eyeball in the U s National Academy of Sciences study, where post flight examinations were performed on about 300 American astronauts since 1989 showed that 29% of space shuttle crew members who flew missions lasting two weeks or less and 60% of International Space Station, or ISS astronauts who generally spent between 5 to 6 months in orbit experienced a degradation of visual acuity.

  • The changes in sight may but do not necessarily correct themselves after a return to Earth, resulting in permanent damage to vision.

  • At this point, there are only theories as to why San seems to affect some astronauts and not others.

  • The last thing needed would be an astronaut piloting a spacecraft to land on Mars.

  • With degraded vision affecting the task at hand.

  • Scientists are working on ways to provide spacecraft with frequent regular periods of artificial gravity toe limit the effects of zero G in space, though your brain itself becomes an enemy while sometimes causing physical symptoms.

  • The other main stressors of long term spaceflight, like isolation and confinement, distance from Earth and hostile closed environments can definitely take a toll.

  • Astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko spent 340 days aboard the USS to help researchers gauge the impact of very long space missions.

  • While they were able to successfully complete the study, they were relatively close to Earth and in theory, could easily return.

  • If there was an emergency.

  • Travelers on a trip to Mars wouldn't be so lucky.

  • Since the days of the Apollo missions, NASA has studied social isolation to better understand how long spaceflight affects humans.

  • In 2019, NASA put on the seriousness 19 analog mission Ah, four months study where six people were isolated in a metal habitat that acted as their spacecraft, lunar lander and home so researchers could study their physiological, psychological and behavioral responses.

  • In May of 2020 NASA put out a call for participants in the serious 20 study, which is set to go in eight months.

  • In 2022 NASA will host a 12 month isolation study mission.

  • These studies are being done in preparation of the NASA lead Artemus Mission, which seeks to send humans back to the moon specifically to the Lunar South Pole by 2024.

  • This is the first mission in a plan to have humans visit Mars by 2030 from previous studies, NASA has noted that the power of togetherness can combat the symptoms of isolation.

  • Crew members that develop a strong, positive team dynamic handle problems like stress, insomnia and circadian de synchronization easier.

  • They also work better and feel more confident and positive.

  • So if you're good at cooperation and working in a team, that might be a mark in your favor.

  • Complicating matters is a phenomenon called the third quarter effect, which is when astronauts coping skills might deteriorate in the second half of a long or stressful mission.

  • This could result in increased stress and lower performance skills.

  • Limited communication with Earth is likely to exacerbate this issue.

  • Near Mars, astronauts can expect a 3 to 22 minute delay, depending on the position of the planets and receiving communication signals, which travel at the speed of light.

  • That could mean 40 minutes toe, have a simple question asked and answered.

  • That also assumes that the communication comes through clearly in an emergency.

  • It would be impossible to depend on the information from Earth to help.

  • The greatest danger may be the one we haven't even discovered yet, though there's another psychological issue.

  • NASA or any other government study can't yet account.

  • For while humans have viewed the Earth from the moon and orbit, we haven't yet view the Earth.

  • From far away from Mars.

  • The Earth appears as a tiny blip on the horizon.

  • We don't know yet what the visual realization of the earth being so far away and therefore no one being able to help in a crisis will spark in a human.

  • One last concern of scientists is that the cumulative effect of various spaceflight stressors might be synergistic.

  • Ultimately, it would be nearly impossible to experiment and attempt to test all the stressors on a potential astronaut all at once.

  • So could you survive a mission to Mars?

  • The simple answer is no one knows.

  • But do you think you're tough enough to try?

  • Now that you reach the end of our video?

  • Why not keep the watch party going?

  • How would the world be different if Russia had landed on the moon?

  • First click here to find out.

  • And what if there was a war in space?

So you think you got the right stuff that you'd be a great choice to help colonize Mars.

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Why You Wouldn't Survive A Mission To Mars

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    Summer posted on 2020/11/08
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