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  • From the 1890 until his death in 1939,

  • the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis,

  • a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks

  • a systematized set of theories about human behavior

  • and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress

  • especially unconscious conflict.

  • Freud's psychoanalytic theory was

  • largely based on interpretive methods

  • introspection and clinical observations.

  • It became very well known

  • largely because it tackled subjects such as

  • sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as

  • general aspects of psychological development.

  • These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time

  • and Freud provided a catalyst for them to

  • be openly discussed in polite society.

  • Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association

  • and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.

  • Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung

  • whose analytical psychology became an

  • alternative form of depth psychology.

  • Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck

  • and by philosophers including Karl Popper.

  • Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis

  • had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline

  • whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets

  • had been contradicted by experimental data.

  • By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in

  • American universities had become scientifically oriented

  • marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a

  • "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.

  • Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging

  • field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of

  • Freud's ideas on scientific grounds

  • while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud

  • was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."

From the 1890 until his death in 1939,

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MIND AND BRAIN 5 - Psychoanalysis

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    阿多賓   posted on 2014/01/18
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