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  • You know, I had a real rough time in school with ADD,

  • and I have a PhD.

  • I earned a PhD, but it's tough to pay attention to

  • biology, geology, physics, chemistry -- really tough for me.

  • Only one thing grabbed my attention.

  • And it's that planet called Earth,

  • but in this picture right here you'll see that

  • Earth is mostly water -- that's the Pacific.

  • 70 percent of Earth is covered with water and you could say,

  • "Hey I know planet Earth. I live here."

  • You don't know Earth.

  • You don't know this planet because most of it's covered with that --

  • average depth is 2 miles.

  • And when you go outside and look up

  • at the like the Empire State building, Chrysler building,

  • the average depth of the ocean is 15 of those

  • on top of one another.

  • We've explored about 5 percent of what's in that water.

  • "Explored," meaning for the first time go peek and see what's there.

  • So what I want to do today is I want to show you

  • some things about this planet, about the oceans.

  • I want to take you from some shallow water down to the deep water,

  • and hopefully, like me, you'll see some things

  • that get you hooked on exploring planet Earth.

  • You know things like corals, you've seen plenty of corals,

  • those of you that have been to the beach, snorkel,

  • you know corals are amazing places to go --

  • full of life, some big animals, small animals, some nice,

  • some dangerous, sharks, whales, all that stuff.

  • They need to be protected from humanity.

  • They're great places, but what you probably don't know about

  • is in the deep ocean, the very deep part of the ocean,

  • we have volcanic eruptions.

  • Most volcanoes on Earth are at the bottom of the sea --

  • more than 80 percent -- and we actually have fire,

  • fire deep inside the ocean, going on right now.

  • All over the world, in the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean,

  • in this place, the ocean floor, the rocks actually turn to liquid.

  • So you actually have waves on the ocean floor.

  • You'd say nothing could live there, but when we look in detail,

  • even there, even in the deepest, darkest places on earth, we find life,

  • which tells us that life really wants to happen.

  • So, pretty amazing stuff.

  • Every time we go to the bottom of the sea,

  • we explore with our submarines, with our robots,

  • we see something that's usually surprising,

  • sometimes it's startling and sometimes revolutionary.

  • You see that puddle of water sitting there.

  • And all around the water there's a little cliff,

  • there's a little white sandy beach.

  • We'll get closer to it. You'll see the beach a little bit better,

  • some of the waves in that water, down there.

  • The thing that's special about this water is that

  • it's at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico.

  • So you're sitting inside of submarine looking out the window

  • at a little pond of water beneath the sea.

  • You know we see ponds, we see lakes, we see rivers --

  • in fact right here is a river at the bottom of the ocean

  • going from the lower left to the upper right.

  • Water is actually flowing through there.

  • This totally blew our minds: how can you have this at the bottom?

  • You're in the ocean looking at more water.

  • And there's animals that only live in that water.

  • So, the bottom of the ocean --

  • I love this map because it shows in the middle of the ocean there's a mountain range.

  • That mountain range is the greatest mountain range on Earth.

  • It's called the Mid-Ocean Ridge --

  • 50,000 miles long, and we've hardly had a peek at it.

  • Hardly had a peek at it.

  • We find valleys, many thousands of valleys

  • larger, wider, deeper than the Grand Canyon.

  • We find, as I said, underwater lakes, rivers, waterfalls.

  • The largest waterfall on the planet

  • is actually under the ocean up near Iceland.

  • All that stuff in that 5 percent that we've explored.

  • So the deal about the ocean is that

  • to explore it you've got to have technology.

  • Not only technology, but it's not just Dave Gallo

  • or one person exploring. It's a team of people.

  • You've got to have the talent. You've got to have the team.

  • You've got to have the technology and in this case it's our ship, Atlantis,

  • and the submarine, Alvin.

  • Now, inside that submarine -- this is an Alvin launch --

  • there's three people. They're being wheeled out onto deck.

  • There's 47 other people. The team work on that ship

  • making sure that these people are okay.

  • Everybody on that submarine is thinking one thing right now:

  • should I have gone to the bathroom one more time?

  • Because you're in there for ten hours --

  • ten hours in that little sphere.

  • Three of you together and nobody is going to be around you.

  • You go into the water and once you hit the water it's amazing.

  • There's a lovely color blue that penetrates right inside you.

  • You don't hear the surface ship anymore,

  • you hear that pinging of a sonar.

  • If you've got an iPhone you've got sonar on there --

  • it's that same pinging that goes down to the bottom and comes back up.

  • Divers check out the sub to make sure the outside is okay,

  • and then they say "Go,"

  • and down you go to the bottom of the ocean and it's an amazing trip.

  • So for two and a half hours you sink down to the bottom.

  • And two hours of it is totally pitch black.

  • And now we thought that nothing could live inside that world

  • at the bottom of the ocean.

  • And when we look, we find some amazing things.

  • All the way down -- we call it "the mid-water" from the top

  • of the ocean down to the bottom -- we find life.

  • Whenever we stop and look we find life.

  • I am going to show you some jellies here because

  • they're absolutely some of the coolest creatures on Earth.

  • Look at that thing just flailing his arms around.

  • That's like a little lobster.

  • That one is like all these animals with their mouths hooked together.

  • They're colonial animals.

  • Some animals are tiny, some can be longer than this stage.

  • Just amazing animals and you can't collect them with a net.

  • We have to go there with our cameras and take a look at them.

  • So every time we go, new species of life.

  • The ocean is full of life.

  • And yet the deepest part of the ocean --

  • when we go to that mountain range, we find hot springs.

  • Now we were sure, because this is poisonous water,

  • because it's so deep that it will crush the Titanic

  • the same way you crush an empty cup inside your hand.

  • We were sure there would be no life there at all.

  • Instead we find more life and diversity and density

  • than the tropical rainforest.

  • So, in one instance, in one peek out the window of the sub,

  • we discover something that revolutionizes the way

  • we think about life on Earth, and that is

  • you don't always have to have sunlight to get life going.

  • There's big animals down there too -- some that look familiar.

  • That guy's called Dumbo. I love him. Dumbo's great.

  • This guy, oh man I wish I had more footage of this.

  • We're trying to get an expedition together to go look at this

  • and maybe in a year we'll have that.

  • Go online and look.

  • Vampyroteuthisinfornalis. The Vampire Squid.

  • Incredibly cool.

  • In the darkness of the deep sea he's got glowing tentacles,

  • so if I'm coming at you like him, I put my arms out in the the darkness

  • so all you see are these little glowing things over here.

  • In the meantime, I'm coming at you.

  • When he wants to escape, he's got these glowing pods

  • on his butt that look like eyes.

  • He's got glowing eyes on his butt. How cool is that?

  • It is just an amazing, amazing animal. (Laughter)

  • Vampire squid, when it gets protective,

  • it pulls this black cape over its whole body,

  • curls up into a ball. Outrageous animal.

  • This ship, "the ship of dreams" -- a hundred years ago

  • this coming April, this ship was supposed to show up in New York.

  • it's the Titanic and I co-led an expedition out there last year.

  • We are learning so much about that ship.

  • Titanic is an interesting place for biology

  • because animals are moving in to live on the Titanic.

  • Microbes are actually eating the hull of Titanic.

  • That is where Jack was king of the world right there on the bow of Titanic.

  • So, we're doing real good and what's exciting me is that

  • someday we're making a virtual Titanic so you can sit there at home

  • with your joystick and your headset on,

  • and you can actually explore Titanic for yourself.

  • That's what we want to do --

  • make these virtual worlds so it's not Dave Gallo

  • or someone else exploring the world; it's you.

  • You explore it for yourself.

  • So here's the bottom line.

  • The oceans are unexplored

  • and I can't begin to tell you how important that is

  • because they're important to us.

  • Seven billion people live on this planet

  • and all of us are impacted by the sea because the oceans

  • control the air you breathe, the water you drink,

  • the food you eat.

  • All those are controlled in someway by the ocean

  • and this is a thing that we haven't even explored --

  • five percent.

  • The thing I want to leave you with is

  • in that 5 percent I showed you some cool stuff.

  • There's a lot more cool stuff every dive we go out on

  • in the ocean, we find something new about the sea.

  • So what's in that other 95 percent?

  • Did we get the exciting stuff or is there more out there?

  • And I am here to tell you that the ocean is full of surprises.

  • There's a quote I love by Marcel Proust:

  • "The true voyage of exploration is not so much in seeking new landscapes,"

  • which we do,

  • "but in having new eyes."

  • And so I hope today by showing you some of this,

  • it's given you some new eyes about this planet,

  • and for the first time I want you to think about it differently.

  • Thank you very much. Thank you.

  • (Applause)

You know, I had a real rough time in school with ADD,

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B1 INT TED-Ed ocean water titanic bottom earth

【TED-Ed】Deep ocean mysteries and wonders - David Gallo

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    VoiceTube   posted on 2013/03/25
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