Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles in this video we're talking about the most intimidating things that pilots face talking to air traffic control radio communications and how to master them coming up Hey everyone Carl with the Aviation Guys here and if you like training tips going on flights and aviation gadget reviews and this is the channel for you if you if like what you see please consider subscribing now let's get going let's Lets start out by saying who this video is for. This video is primarily for student pilots who are ready to take control of the radios, but it's also for certified pilots who don't usually fly into control airports. But the whole idea is to help you learn how to get around, fly into, and out of your local airport. But here's the bottom line the FAA requires certain communications to happen on the radio and that puts a lot of pressure on air traffic control and so they have to put pressure on the pilots to make sure they're in compliance as well so let's make radio communication as simple as possible there's three basic parts the request instructions and confirmation so you make a request to air traffic control they give you instructions and then you repeat those instructions back to confirm that you heard them correctly then unless they've asked you to contact them or you have a new request you only receive instructions and confirm it as air traffic control gives you updated information that's it that's all radio communication is but because what you say and how you say it matters we're going to dig a little deeper. so we're going to walk through this as if we're going on a flight and at an airport with air traffic control there's multiple controllers if you're on the ground you'll start by contacting ground control to get you to the runway and after you have the runway you'll contact the tower to clear you for takeoff so since we're on the ground we're gonna start with our initial contact with ground control. this initial contact is basically asking permission to enter the movement area which is anywhere where there's taxiways and runways in order to enter those areas you have to give them all the information that they need to be able to graduate entrance into the movement area watch here as I make my initial contact with ground. We on ground? Looks good. Is it really that today? Is it really that what? quiet Yea, I know right? dear valley ground Cessna seven five six zero zero at romeo eight requesting taxi for Northwest departure with information Zulu. Again your communication with air traffic control on your initial contact has to have a lot of information. To keep things simple we're going to use the W's use of ATC communication. When you make your initial contact with air traffic control, whether you're in the air or on the ground it has to include these five things. who you're talking to who you are where you are what is your request and intentions and with what airport information This is everything air traffic control needs to know to give you clearance and instruction. Now the W's aren't the end-all in radio communication. It's just a good technique to help you get going. In fact the order of what you are, where you are, and what your requests are doesn't even matter. But by using the W's in your communication it helps things flow better and feel more natural. Now, the first communication was the hardest one from here you just have to listen to what air traffic control says and repeat it back to them so they know you heard them correctly. Let's watch the rest of this transmission Cessna Seven five six zero zero, taxi to northwest run-up via Alpha advise run-up complete. Taxing to northwest run-up area via alpha will advise when complete six zero zero Now that we're cleared to taxi we'll follow the instructions air traffic control gave us to the run-up area. Just a side note, not all airports have a designated run-up area like mine. Sometimes you complete your run-up at the end of the runway or the runway access point, but what's important here is that I just entered a non-movement area, as indicated by these lines which means that once my run-up is complete I have to contact ground again for clearance into the movement area. But, because I already gave them all the information they needed about me and my initial contact, I only have to advise them on the things that they requested. Which, in this case, is that my run-up is complete. Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero run-up is complete by now you should have noticed two things that I'm doing with every communication. The first is that I'm addressing who I'm talking to and saying Who I am. These are the first two W's use instead of our steps. Anytime you're making contact with air traffic control, Unicom, or even air-to-air frequency you should always start with who you're talking to and who you are. Second I close my transmission by using my tail number or rather, in this case the last three of my tail number to help speed things up. It's technically not required to do so you could just end your transmission by lifting the push-to-talk button but using this technique is common and helps others in the area know that you're done communicating. Also speaking of using the last three of your tail number to help speed things up, air traffic control might do the same thing so make sure you're actively listening for the last three of your tail number whenever you're inside of a traffic area. Now back to my taxi and just like before I'm going to listen to the instructions I'm given and confirm them. Cessna six zero zero runway seven left, taxi via alpha, alpha four. Taxing via alpha to alpha four for seven left six zero zero alright now we followed the instructions given to us by ground control, completed our run-up, made it to the runway, and are holding short. But ground control can't give us clearance to take off only tower can. So we have to change our radio frequency to tower to make our next transmission. dear valley power Cessna seven five six zero zero is holding short of seven left ready for departure. now because we switch over to a different controller we not only had to tell them who we are again but we had to use our full tail number But also tell them where we were and what our request is and in this case it was a request to depart. The rest of our intentions like where we were going and what airport information we had, was already handed over to tower from ground control So we didn't need to tell him that again. Cessna seven five six zero zero, Deer Valley Tower, hold short runway seven left. Holding short, seven left, six zero zero. no matter what instructions you're given you just need to confirm and comply to them in my case I was told to hold short but, they could give you any number of instructions from here. Here are just a few of them. hold short of runway. You'll hear this if there's an aircraft about to land or the runway isn't clea Fly straight out or fly runway heading. you'll hear this if you're departing the airport and they want you to fly until you reach the required altitude I'll call your crosswind You'll hear this when the tower is trying to keep separation between traffic. They'll let you know when you can turn. left or rightclose traffic approved You'll hear this when you're approved to stay in the traffic pattern for touch and go's. turn at your discretion You'll hear this when you're leaving the airport and you can turn for departure whenever you'd like line up and wait Here you've been cleared onto the runway to get ready for takeoff but not actually do so until you get clearance cleared for take off this one's kind of self-explanatory Cessna six zero zero fly straight out to advise runway seven left cleared for takeoff clear for takeoff on seven left for six zero zero flying straight out Great, you're up in the air. You fly away from the airport for some maneuvers. You do some stalls maybe a couple spins your instructor simulates an emergency Alright buddy, simulated engine failure. soon enough it's time to head back to the airport. Once you're ready, you'll have to make contact with air traffic control letting them know that you're ready to come back for a landing just like when you're on the ground you have to contact them to be allowed into their airspace and your transmission would sound something like this Deer Valley tower cessna seven five six zero zero is over the shooting range inbound requesting touch and goes with information Zulu. so if you're paying close attention you realize I use the five W's again. The process for contacting aircraft traffic control is the same whether you're on the ground or in the air, the information just changes a little bit because you're not calling out airport intersection you're calling out a local landmark that air traffic control is used to, or you could be using a reporting point found on a sectional from here air traffic control will give me instructions that I just have to repeat to confirm. Cessna seven five six zero zero deer vally tower, Roger. Left base for seven left, report over canal and freeway. Reporting over canal freeway for seven five six zero zero from out here air traffic control can give you all kinds of instructions in my case they asked me to report back to them when I got a little bit closer to the airport. Now typically I would have called air traffic control at the reporting point that they asked me but anything can happen when you're inbound to an airport and in my case they gave me updated instructions before I got to the reporting point Cessna six zero zero for traffic make a left turn and fly eastbound I'll let you know when you can make a right turn back to downwind make a right turn to east bound, I'll listen for your call. Err... yes... EAST bound, LEFT TURN! for six zero zero. HAHAHAHHAHA In situations like these it's important to just confirm and comply because air traffic control really could ask you to do any number of things. Here's a short list of things that they could ask you to do. extend your downwind I'll call your base Air traffic control is trying to space the landings just keep flying until they tell you to turn enter a left or right base for runway This information is to tell you how air traffic control would like you to approach the runway. Enter right or left traffic for runway This is the same thing as entering a left or right base. Air traffic control wants you to enter the traffic pattern and is telling you how to approach the runway. continue straight in You're already flying runway heading so you can fly straight in and skip the pattern Cross over midfield and make right or left traffic You're on the wrong side of the airport in this situation so air traffic control is directing you to fly over the field and how have you join the patter. Remain outside class Delta This means stay out of their airspace. They may have too much traffic or something else is going on and they just don't want you in there yet. Follow traffic at your 12 o'clock. I used 12 o'clock as an example here but you'll typically hear this when air traffic control want you to follow someone else in the pattern and they're telling you where to look. If you see the traffic you would respond with traffic in sight otherwise you would respond with looking for traffic cleared for the option Typically you would have to request the option to be cleared for it but if your traffic control says that you've been cleared for the option you can do whatever type of landing you want. Full stop, touch and go, and even a stop and go. clear to land on runway this one should be obvious but make sure you don't land unless you hear it the same rule applies for any type of landing just make sure air traffic control says what type of landing you're looking to attempt now going back to my landing, air traffic control told me why there was a delay for my entry into their area. But usually they don't have to tell you. But just like I was asked I flew East until I was told to come inbound to the airport. Cessna six zero zero, affirmative. Left turn to the east. My plan is, I've got a... the downwind is pretty stretched out so I'm gonna put you behind everybody Roger six zero zero. Here are the rest of the updates as I came in for my landing. Cessna six zero zero traffic approaching your three o'clock higher on downwind Seminole traffic is a sight. Cessna six zero zero you can turn inbound and follow the Seminole that's at midfield. turning right following traffic. Six zero zero. Cessna seven five six zero zero, follow the Seminole just crossing the freeway on final Runway seven left, cleared to land. Cleared to land, looking for traffic six zero zero. okay now we've landed but our last contact with air traffic control tower is going to be telling us to pull off the runway and contact ground for our taxi instructions Cessna six zero zero contact ground point 8 Contacting ground, six zero zero. After clearing the runway we change our radios over to ground control to make our last call and you guessed it, use the five W's all except for the last one because that information isn't required to taxi to the hangars. Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero at alpha nine requesting taxi to north hangars Cessna seven five six zero zero, deer valley ground.