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  • Welcome to YouTube Original Stages,

  • once home to Howard Hughes's Spruce Goose assembly hangar,

  • and home to much of the first Iron Man,

  • filmed 12 years ago.

  • Many happy memories here.

  • And speaking of taking a look back...

  • Technology.

  • It's advancing faster

  • and taking less time to be widely adopted

  • than ever before,

  • like as in it took roughly 10,000 years

  • to go from writing to printing press,

  • but only about 500 more to get to email.

  • Now it seems we're at the dawn of a new age,

  • the age of A.I...

  • Artificial Intelligence.

  • Please define.

  • [automated voice speaking]

  • Uh-huh, okay. There you have it.

  • What does it mean? I don't know.

  • Tons of folks are working on it, right?

  • Most people don't know that much about it,

  • and of course, there's no shortage

  • of data or opinions.

  • Anyway, I've heard it said

  • that the best way to learn about a subject

  • is to teach it,

  • but to level with ya,

  • I have a wildly incomplete education...

  • Not in my day job,

  • where I've been A.I.-adjacent for over a decade.

  • Anyway, I figured now would be as good a time as any

  • to catch up on the state of things

  • regarding this emerging phenomenon.

  • My sense of it is it kind of feels like

  • Pandora's box, maybe... ish?

  • Much of my understanding on this topic

  • has come from sci-fi stories,

  • which usually depict us

  • heading toward Shangri-La or dystopia.

  • Like most things,

  • I suspect the truth is probably somewhere in the middle.

  • Now, along the way,

  • we'll demystify some common misconceptions

  • about things we thought we understood, but probably don't,

  • terms such as

  • "machine learning," "algorithms,"

  • "computer vision" and "Big Data,"

  • they will be conveniently unpacked

  • to help us feel like we know what we're doing,

  • kinda.

  • By the way, Pandora's box...

  • wasn't a box.

  • It...

  • was a clay jar.

  • How about that?

  • Demystified.

  • A.I. is teaching the machine,

  • and the machine becoming smart.

  • Each time we create a more powerful technology,

  • we create a bigger lever for changing the world.

  • [computer] Autonomous driving started.

  • [Downey] It's an extraordinary time,

  • one of unprecedented change and possibility.

  • To help us understand what's happening,

  • this series will look at innovators

  • pushing the boundaries of A.I...

  • No, stop!

  • [Downey] ...and how their groundbreaking work

  • is profoundly impacting our lives...

  • Yay! [laughing]

  • [Downey] ...and the world around us.

  • In this episode, we'll meet two different visionaries

  • exploring identity, creativity,

  • and collaboration between humans and machines.

  • Intelligence used to be the province of only humans,

  • but it no longer is.

  • We don't program the machines. They learn by themselves.

  • Mm. Ah. That's good.

  • All right.

  • My background's always been a mixture of art and science.

  • I ended up doing a PhD in bioengineering,

  • then I ended up in the film industry,

  • working on King Kong to Avatar,

  • simulating faces.

  • I'd got to a point in my career

  • where I'd been, you know,

  • lucky enough to win a couple of Academy Awards,

  • so I thought, "Okay, what happens

  • if we actually tried to bring those characters to life,

  • that actually you could interact with?"

  • [toddler crying]

  • Baby... Ooh.

  • [toddler fusses]

  • What can you see?

  • So "Baby X" is a lifelike simulation of a toddler.

  • Hey. Are you excited to be here?

  • She's actually seeing me through the web camera,

  • she's listening through the microphone.

  • Woo... yeah.

  • Baby X is about exploring the nature

  • of how would we build a digital consciousness,

  • if it's possible?

  • We don't know if it's possible,

  • but we're chipping away at that problem.

  • Hey, Baby. Hey.

  • [Downey] "Problem" is an understatement

  • for what Mark's chipping away at.

  • His vision of the future

  • is one where human and machine cooperate,

  • and the best way to achieve that, he thinks,

  • is to make A.I. as life-like as possible.

  • Peek-a-boo!

  • [Baby X giggling]

  • [Downey] Which is why he began where most life begins...

  • a baby...

  • modeled after his own daughter.

  • So if we start revealing her layers,

  • she's driven by virtual muscles,

  • and the virtual muscles, in turn,

  • are driven by a virtual brain.

  • Now, these are radically simplified models

  • from the real thing,

  • but nevertheless,

  • they're models that we can explore how they work,

  • because we have a real template that exists,

  • the human brain.

  • So, these are all driven by neural networks.

  • [Downey] "Neural network"

  • is a virtual, much simpler version

  • of the human brain.

  • The brain is the most complex system in our body.

  • It's got 85 billion neurons, each of which fire non-stop,

  • receiving, processing, and sending information.

  • Baby X's brain is nowhere near as complex,

  • but that's the goal.

  • Instead of neurons, it's got nodes.

  • The more the nodes are exposed to,

  • the more they learn.

  • [Sagar] What we've learned is it's very hard to build a digital brain,

  • but where we want to go with it

  • is we're trying to build a human-like A.I.

  • which has a flexible intelligence

  • that can relate to people.

  • I think the best kind of systems

  • are when humans and A.I. work together.

  • One of the biggest misconceptions of A.I.

  • is that there is a super-intelligent being,

  • or what we call a generalized A.I.,

  • that knows all, can do all,

  • smarter than all of us put together.

  • That is a total misconception.

  • A.I. is built on us.

  • A.I. is mimicking our thought processes.

  • A.I. is basically an emulation of us.

  • [Downey] Like visionaries before him, Mark's a dreamer.

  • The current state of his moonshot, however,

  • is a little more earthbound.

  • [computer] Thank you for granting access

  • to your microphone. It's good to hear you.

  • [Downey] Today, most avatars

  • are basically glorified customer-service reps.

  • [service avatar] Rest assured,

  • your health is my primary concern.

  • [Downey] They can answer simple questions

  • and give scripted responses.

  • I love helping our customers,

  • so I'm keen to keep learning.

  • [Downey] Beats dealing with automated phonelines for sure,

  • but it's a far cry from Mark's ultimate vision...

  • [Sagar] Hey, Baby. Hey.

  • [Downey] ...to create avatars that can actually learn,

  • interpret, and interact with the world around them,

  • like a real human.

  • What's this?

  • Spider.

  • So we're starting to get a spider forming in her mind here,

  • she's starting to associate the word with the image.

  • So, Baby... spider.

  • Spider.

  • Spider...

  • Good! Okay, what's this?

  • [Baby] Spider.

  • No. This is a duck.

  • Look at the duck.

  • [Baby] Duck.

  • [Sagar] Yeah.

  • [Downey] Baby X uses a type of A.I. called "object recognition."

  • Basically, it's how a computer sees...

  • how it identifies an object, like a spider,

  • or tells the difference between a spider and a duck.

  • It's something that you and I do naturally...

  • ...but machines, like Baby X, need to learn from scratch,

  • by basically sifting through enormous piles of data

  • to search for patterns,

  • so that eventually, it can drive a car,

  • or pick out a criminal in a crowded photograph,

  • or tell the difference between me and... that guy.

  • [Sagar] But now I'm gonna tell her that spiders are scary.

  • Look out! Rawr! Scary spider! Rawr!

  • [crying]

  • Hey, hey. Don't cry. It's okay. Hey...

  • [Baby crying]

  • Hey, it's okay.

  • Now she's responding emotionally to me as well,

  • so we've gone all the way down

  • to virtual neurotransmitters, hormones, and so forth,

  • so Baby X has a stress system.

  • If I give her a fright...

  • Boo!

  • So we'll see basically

  • some noradrenaline was released then,

  • and she's gone into a much more vigilant state of mind.

  • [Downey] What Mark is working on

  • is known as "affective computing,"

  • A.I. that interprets and simulates human emotion.

  • I believe that machines are gonna interact with humans

  • just the way we interact with one another,

  • through perception, through conversation.

  • So as A.I. continues to become mainstream,

  • it needs to really understand humans,

  • and so we want to build emotion A.I.

  • that enables machines to have empathy.

  • Hello, Pepa.

  • -Hello. -[man] Hello.

  • -Hello. -Hello.

  • -Hello. -[laughing]

  • Oh, dear.

  • -We can do this forever. -I know we could. [laughs]

  • [Howard] They've showed, for example,

  • older adults who have A.I. aides at their nursing homes,

  • they are happier

  • with a robot that emotes and is social

  • than having no one there.

  • That's really the enhancement of human relationships.

  • [Sagar] Hey... Hello.

  • You know, human cooperation

  • is the most powerful force in human history, right?

  • Human cooperation with intelligent machines

  • will define the next era of history.

  • Using a machine which is connected

  • with the rest of the world through the Internet,

  • that can work as a creative, collaborative partner?

  • That's unbelievable.

  • [will.i.am] Jessica. Jessica. One more time, one more time.

  • We're gonna go from just the first two verses,

  • and the first two verses

  • will take us to three minutes, okay?

  • I love music.

  • The whole concept of music is collaboration,

  • so if there are some people that see me as a musician,

  • that's awesome.

  • I first became interested in A.I.

  • because A.I. is a very fruitful place to create in.

  • It's a new tool for us.

  • I dream, and make my dreams reality,

  • whether the dream is a song

  • or the dream is an avatar of myself.

  • One time, a friend was like, "Well, you can't clone yourself.

  • You can't be in two places at once."

  • That's the promise of the avatar