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  • CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Meeting in Switzerland to discuss a nuclear program in Iran - that`s where we start today on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • Western countries like the U.S. are worried that Iran could use its nuclear program to make nuclear weapons.

  • Iran`s government insists its nuclear program is only for peaceful purposes.

  • The United Nations has used sanctions, the kind of punishment to pressure Iran into negotiations. The latest talks are happening this week.

  • REZA SEYAH, CNN CORRESPONDENT, TEHRAN, IRAN: Even a preliminary deal happens, it could mean the beginning of a shift in geopolitical alliances and the geopolitical landscape in this region.

  • What adds to the drama is that many groups and factions want this to happen, there is other groups and factions and governments who do not want this to happen.

  • AZUZ: That plan could mean the sanctions against Iran ease up. U.S. national security advisor Susan Rice says a deal would benefit the global community.

  • Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is against the deal. He says the pressure, the sanctions should be increased because, he says, they are finally working.

  • A baseball player, country singer, astronaut, media mogul and former president they are among the newest presidential Medal of Freedom honorees.

  • Yesterday, President Obama awarded 16 people who, in his words, dedicated their own lives to enriching ours.

  • Including baseball hall of famer Ernie Banks who played 19 years with the Chicago cubs.

  • Loretta Lynn, one of the first successful female country music artists.

  • Sally Ride, whom you are about to see in this YouTube clip, and the first American woman in space, was honored posthumously.

  • Oprah Winfrey hosted America`s highest rated talk show or 25 years.

  • And Bill Clinton is the seventh former president to get the Medal of Freedom.

  • One former president who earned the Medal of Freedom established the award 50 years ago. President John F. Kennedy.

  • After yesterday`s Medal of Freedom ceremony Presidents Obama and Clinton along with first lady Michelle Obama and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Arlington National Cemetery.

  • They placed a wreath at the eternal flame that marks President Kennedy`s graveside.

  • They also met with members of the Kennedy family.

  • Tomorrow marks the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy`s assassination.

  • We`re going to have special coverage of that event in tomorrow show. So, please be sure to watch.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Five, four, three, two, one.

  • Main engine start, ignition and liftoff of the Atlas 5 with MAVEN looking for clues about the evolution of Mars through its atmosphere.

  • AZUZ: MAVEN, the Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution spacecraft. It won`t set down on the red planet.

  • MAVEN`s designed to orbit Mars between 90 and 3700 miles above the surface.

  • It will have some company. When MAVEN arrives, NASA will have a half-dozen Mars missions running.

  • CHAD MYERS, CNN METEOROLOGIST: For scientists or space enthusiasts alike Mars continues to amaze.

  • It`s no surprise the red planet is currently the subject to five active NASA missions: three in orbit and two on the surface.

  • And liftoff of the Atlas 5 with Curiosity so you conclude for the planetary puzzle about life on Mars.

  • You`ve probably heard of Curiosity. NASA`s rover, studying the geology and climate on the ground.

  • Now, NASA seeks (ph) the mission, MAVEN is hoping to study Mars from above.

  • And as 4 billion year old question, what made the fourth planet from the Sun turn red and barren?

  • JIM GARVIN, CHIEF SCIENTIST, NASA: It`s gone from that polar starel (ph) desert, geological world, kind of boring rocks to this exciting blooming world with a history that does include warm wet times,

  • climate change, dynamic atmospheres, landslides, ice sheets, buried (ph) ice, unbelievable.

  • MYERS: Scientists believe that Mars may have looked a lot like Earth, with blue skies and warm temperatures.

  • MYERS (on camera) : We do believe that Mars at one point had liquid water, correct?

  • GARVIN: Absolutely. Evidence in the rocks from Curiosity is literally unassailable.

  • And we see the record even in the frozen materials in the soils today.

  • MYERS (voice over): Collecting new measurements of the planet`s upper atmosphere will get those analyzing the data a better understanding of the climate change over the red planet`s history.

  • GARVIN: We expect to learn how the modern Mars works. Really, in detail.

  • To see its climate states, to understand how the atmosphere is lost to space, how Mars may have lost a magnetic field.

  • To take that information and map it back in time.

  • MYERS: The journey will be long. Maybe it will have to travel ten months and millions of miles before reaching Mars`s orbit.

  • But NASA says the journey and MAVEN $671 million price tag are worth it.

  • Especially, if MAVEN can help unlock the big question - did life ever exist on Mars?

  • Chad Myers, CNN, Atlanta.

  • AZUZ: Well, back on Earth, there are concerns about concussions. These brain injuries are usually caused by hit to the head, especially in contact sports like football or hockey.

  • The symptoms of a concussion might not show up immediately, but some researchers are working on technology that could detect these injuries as they happen.

  • ERIK SWEENEY, YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYER: The quarterback ran and I tackled him.

  • We just both hit the ground ...

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: 13-year old Erik Sweeney is describing a concussion he suffered a few weeks ago.

  • ERIK SWEENEY: It didn`t hurt or anything, it just shocked like - it felt all fuzzy in the back of my head.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: On his team sideline, no one saw the play and despite that fuzzy feeling, Erik was (inaudible) to go.

  • SEAN SWEENEY, ERIK SWEENEY`S FATHER: He came out after that play and he was ready to go back in.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: But he was stopped short by this.

  • It`s a sensor worn under the helmet. It is supposed to flash yellow after a moderate impact of the head and read after a severe one.

  • When Erik came off the field, his light was flashing yellow.

  • SEAN SWEENEY: He said I want to play, and then he began to get dizzy.

  • Then he began to get the headache. And then it became evident that something was not right.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Fortunately, the impact indicator flashed red and he was removed from the game.

  • Concussion helmet sensors.

  • They are beginning to pop up on all sorts of playing fields.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So, I want you to try that on.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: They are marketed as being able to measure whether a hit is too hard.

  • And as in Erik Sweeney`s case, an extra set of eyes on the field.

  • But how well do they really work? That is what scientists at this bioengineering lab are trying to find out.

  • STEPHAN DUMA, VA TECH PROF. OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING: Everything is green, nothing`s - and that`s what we would - that`s what we would expect.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: A low level impact and the products being tested all have green lights glowing.

  • But when the helmet drops from higher up ...

  • DUMA: Six inches, five feet, this is probably going to be over 100 GEs (inaudible).

  • Three, two, one. Well, it is surprising. So, nothing went off there.

  • That`s well in the range of concussion. You would definitely want to alert that 110 gs.

  • You can see the six different accelerometers in there.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Stephan Duma, a biomedical engineer who leads the testing at Virginia Tech, decides to drop from six feet.

  • DUMA: They should be pretty concerned if this does not trigger one of those. Three, two, one.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: That impact, 130 Gs is like running full speed into a brick wall.

  • One device did trigger, the other did not.

  • DUMA: That`s ready. For 150 G impact.

  • UNIDENTIFIED MALE: At an even higher drop, one product flashes green, the other red.

  • DUMA: So this really kind of underscores that we need to do testing. We need to understand what we are measuring, when they trigger, when they don`t.

  • AZUZ: CNN heroes, ordinary people finding ways to make a difference in their communities. There are the top ten heroes of 2013.

  • They were honored for their efforts at an award show this week.

  • Chad Pregracke, his help to remove 17 million pounds of trash from the Mississippi River and other U.S. waterways.

  • Pregracke is getting $250,000 to continue that work because he is the CNN hero of the year.

  • CHAD PREGRACKE, 2013 CNN HERO OF THE YEAR: You know I`ve met so many great people today, the other heroes and like I`m really moved by all their stories.

  • And all the things they do around the world. And like the 250 Grand - I`m just going to give 10 Grand to each of them because they are awesome. So, yeah.

  • AZUZ: You can catch the full "CNN Heroes All Star Tribute" when it airs on December 1 at 8 P.M. Eastern on CNN.

  • From the West Coast to the East with a Lone Start stop in between. It`s time for the "Roll Call."

  • Out in Irvine, California, the Mackedos (ph) put urban high school on our map.

  • We`re bullish on the Toros (ph) from A.J. Briesemeister Middle In Sagine (ph) Texas and we have our first Iguanas - the Oasis Iguanas in Cape Coral, Florida.

  • Thanks to all of you for watching.

  • You`ve heard of how fireworks can shoot across the sky. But dolphins in the sky?

  • You`ve got to see it to believe it. This YouTube clip might look magical, but the mystery is mostly made of mirrors, or at least reflections.

  • The water these dolphins are in is so clear that it`s reflecting the clouds, and that`s why it looks like the dolphins are moving through the air rather than under the waves.

  • So it might be a little misleading, but it was recorded that way on purpose.

  • We`re out of time for today, but we`ll flip around and meet you back here tomorrow to finish up the week.

  • END

CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Meeting in Switzerland to discuss a nuclear program in Iran - that`s where we start today on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

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November 21, 2013 - CNN Student News with subtitles

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