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  • It's AumSum Time

  • How do miracle fruits work?

  • By performing miracles.

  • No.

  • Miracle fruit is a red berry also known as Synsepalum dulcificum.

  • The fantastic quality about this berry is that after eating it.

  • Acidic foods which should be sour, taste sweet.

  • The secret behind this is a protein called Miraculin found in these fruits.

  • However, experts are not sure how miraculin actually works.

  • But there are three popular theories.

  • First theory states that miraculin temporarily suppresses sour taste receptors.

  • Hence, when we eat acidic foods, they dont taste sour.

  • Second theory states that miraculin rewires the sweet receptors.

  • Such that they begin to identify acids as sugars.

  • Thus making sour foods taste sweet.

  • Whereas third theory states that acids cause miraculin to change its shape.

  • Causing it to bind to the sweet receptors more strongly.

  • Making them over activated, producing a sweet taste.

  • Neutralization reaction.

  • How to treat a bee sting?

  • Hey.

  • Hold On.

  • Do not go near that honeycomb.

  • Please listen to me.

  • It is quite dangerous.

  • Fine.

  • Go ahead.

  • See, I told you.

  • Okay.

  • Now, do not worry.

  • Put this baking soda solution on the bee stung area.

  • You got some relief, right?

  • Do you know why you got relief?

  • This happened because a neutralization reaction took place.

  • When we applied baking soda on the stung area.

  • The venom of a honey bee contains formic acid.

  • When it stings us, it injects that acid into our skin.

  • Formic acid causes immense pain and irritation.

  • However, when we apply baking soda solution, which is a mild base, on the stung area.

  • It neutralizes the formic acid and cancels its effect.

  • As a result, the sensation of pain and irritation decreases and we get some relief.

  • Such a reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization.

  • In neutralization, both acidic and basic solutions neutralize the effect of each other.

  • The nature of both acids and bases gets destroyed.

  • Hey, Wait.

  • What are you doing?

  • Do not tease that insect.

  • It is not a honey bee.

  • It looks similar to a honey bee but it is a bit longer.

  • It is called a wasp.

  • At least this time listen to me.

  • Okay.

  • Don't listen and bear the consequences.

  • Applying the baking soda is not going to help.

  • See, nothing is happening.

  • I will tell you what to do.

  • Pour this vinegar on the stung area, you will get some relief.

  • Why do you think the baking soda solution did not help in this case?

  • Earlier, in case of the honey bee, we learnt that its venom is acidic.

  • Hence, baking soda, being a basic solution helped to neutralize the effect.

  • Now, in case of a wasp, the nature of its venom is basic.

  • When it stings us, it injects that venom into our skin.

  • This venom causes us pain and itching.

  • Now, baking soda is also a basic solution.

  • Hence, it will not provide any sort of relief.

  • However, when we pour vinegar, which is a mild acid, on the stung area.

  • The acid, that is, vinegar and the base, that is, the wasp's venom get neutralized.

  • As a result, the sensation of pain and itching decreases and we feel better.

  • Metals and acids.

  • Why is curd not stored in copper containers?

  • Hey wait.

  • What are you doing?

  • Do not eat that curd.

  • It was stored in a copper container.

  • Please listen.

  • Fine, then bear the consequences.

  • I had warned you.

  • Do you know why this happened?

  • This happened because curd contains lactic acid in it.

  • When curd is stored in containers made up of metals like copper or brass.

  • The lactic acid present in it, reacts with the metal and forms metallic salts.

  • These metallic salts are harmful.

  • They make the curd unfit for human consumption.

  • Therefore, to prevent metals from reacting with acids present in food.

  • The metal containers are coated with a thin layer of tin.

  • Tin is also a metal.

  • However, it does not react with acids as rapidly as other metals do.

  • Thus keeping the food in the container safe.

  • Sublimation.

  • Why do mothballs disappear over time?

  • You have a nice collection of clothes.

  • But have you kept mothballs to protect them?

  • Yes.

  • I had kept them a few months back below these clothes.

  • Oh no.

  • Where did the mothballs go?

  • I had placed them right here.

  • Did you steal them?

  • No, no.

  • I have not stolen anything.

  • Mothballs disappear over time.

  • Do you know why?

  • It is because of a process called sublimation.

  • During sublimation, a solid on heating, converts directly into vapor.

  • Without passing through the intermediate liquid state.

  • Do not lie.

  • How is that even possible?

  • See, I also hid a burger here many days ago.

  • It did not disappear.

  • Oh gross.

  • Just throw that burger in the dustbin.

  • Not all substances sublimate.

  • Mothballs are made up of naphthalene.

  • Naphthalene has very weak intermolecular forces.

  • Because of these weak forces, the mothball which is made up of naphthalene sublimates.

  • It changes its state from solid to vapor.

  • Now, this vapor is either absorbed by the fabric or it escapes into the atmosphere.

  • Causing the mothballs to disappear over time.

  • Wavelength.

  • Why red is used as a danger signal?

  • Oh well, becasue my teacher said so.

  • As usual, you are wrong.

  • The major reason for red to be used as a danger signal is its wavelength.

  • Yes, I know.

  • Wavelength is the distance between two sea waves.

  • No.

  • In the wave theory of light,

  • The distance between successive crests or troughs is called wavelength.

  • Longer the wavelength, lesser will be the scattering of light.

  • Now, among the colors of visible light, red has the longest wavelength.

  • Hence, it is least scattered by the atmospheric particles.

  • As a result whether it is fog or smoke, red light passes comparatively easily through them.

  • Thus, it can be seen from maximum distance.

  • Making red color the right choice to convey any danger.

  • Auroras.

  • Why are auroras formed?

  • Maybe because the earth forgets to switch off the lights.

  • No.

  • Let me explain.

  • Our sun is a giant burning star.

  • It expels tons of solar wind into space.

  • Solar wind consists of super hot charged particles which are fatal.

  • So, should we use a big umbrella to protect ourselves from these particles?

  • No.

  • The earth's magnetic field acts like a shield and protects us.

  • Its field lines appear to emerge from the south pole and merge into the north pole.

  • Now, when the charged particles hit our magnetic field, most of them get deflected.

  • However, some of them flow along the earth's magnetic field lines to the poles.

  • Thus reach our upper atmosphere.

  • Here, these particles collide with oxygen and nitrogen.

  • This causes them to give off various colors of light which are called auroras.

  • Human bones.

  • How does a bone heal?

  • Simple, by a bandage.

  • No.

  • Bones are one of the most important parts of our body.

  • They not only provide structural support but also produce red blood cells.

  • What?

  • Our bones produce red blood cells?

  • Absolutely.

  • Hence, when we crack or break a bone, it is very important to heal it.

  • In the healing process, cells called chondrocytes produce collagen which forms cartilage.

  • This cartilage bridges the gap between the broken bones, thus producing a soft callus.

  • Then, special cells called osteoblasts create a hard bony callus using collagen.

  • Minerals like calcium and phosphorus, thus forming our new bone.

  • However, this new bone is irregular in shape.

  • Hence, cells called osteoclasts start remodelling the bone.

  • Resulting in the formation of bone similar to the original shape.

  • Dandruff.

  • Why do we get dandruff?

  • Tearing of pages.

  • No.

  • Dandruff is a condition in which our scalp sheds skin cells in the form of white flakes.

  • A yeast called Malassezia globosa, is one of the mostly accepted reasons for causing dandruff.

  • What a classy name it has.

  • Indeed.

  • Malassezia globosa is naturally present on our scalp.

  • It feeds on sebum and releases oleic acid.

  • Now, some people are sensitive to this oleic acid.

  • When it penetrates into the upper layers of their skin, it causes inflammation.

  • Hence, in response to this inflammation.

  • Their skin sheds a large number of skin cells at a higher rate.

  • These cells then join together forming white flakes, thus causing dandruff.

  • Why do we stretch in the morning?

  • So that we can sleep for two more hours.

  • No.

  • Wait, I will explain.

  • When we wake up in the morning, we yawn and stretch our arms and legs.

  • This coordinated yawning and stretching is referred to as pandiculation.

  • I thought it is referred to as calculation.

  • Just listen.

  • When we are asleep, we do not perform any activities.

  • Hence, our heart rate becomes slow and the blood flow is decreased.

  • Also, as many people lie in the same position for long hours.

  • Their muscles become stiff and tight.

  • Thus, a good stretch in the morning awakens our body.

  • It brings our heart rate back to normal, improving the blood flow to various body parts.

  • Stretching also loosens and realigns our stiff muscles.

  • Making them more flexible and ready for the day ahead.

  • Why does hot air balloon float?

  • Because it has invisible wings.

  • No.

  • It is because of density.

  • Density is the measure of mass present per unit volume.

  • Lesser the density, lighter will be the object.

  • Now, density varies with temperature.

  • Oh.

  • It is so complicated.

  • Alright.

  • I will explain.

  • When a hot air balloon is on ground.

  • The air inside and outside the balloon is of same temperature and density.

  • However, when we turn on the burner of the balloon.

  • The air inside the balloon starts getting hot.

  • The molecules of air move faster and spread apart, taking up more space.

  • Hence, the air inside the balloon becomes less dense than the air outside.

  • As less dense air is lighter, the hot air balloon rises and thus, begins to float.

  • Why does airplane food taste bad?

  • I do not know.

  • Wait, I will explain.

  • Our ability to perceive taste is affected by a few factors such as humidity, air pressure, etc.

  • In an airplane, the humidity is less as compared to that on the ground.

  • This makes the air in the airplane quite dry.

  • Also, to maintain the air pressure inside and outside the airplane.

  • The air pressure inside it is decreased.

  • Decreased air pressure and dry air, dries our nose and mouth.

  • Dry nose cannot properly smell odors.

  • Yes.

  • I am not abe to smell the burger.

  • Now, smell of food helps us to understand the flavor and ingredients of the food.

  • Thus, the food which we cannot smell properly appears unappealing.

  • Also, dry mouth reduces the sensitivity of our taste buds.

  • As a result, we cannot perceive the taste of food properly.

  • Why do dogs lick their wounds?

  • Dogs including animals like cats, chimpanzees, rodents, etc.

  • Do not have access to a proper medical treatment.

  • Hence, a little licking helps to heal and clean the wound.

  • What?

  • But how?

  • When dogs lick, they apply saliva on their wounds.

  • This saliva has antiviral and antibacterial compounds like an enzyme called lysozyme.

  • Lysozyme destroys cell walls of certain bacteria and helps kill them, thus preventing infection.

  • The saliva also contains a protein called tissue factor.

  • Which promotes blood clotting and thus stops bleeding.

  • Besides this, licking also removes dirt from the wound.

  • So, dogs should always lick their wounds.

  • No.