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  • Hi, everybody! My name is Alisha.

  • Welcome back to our EnglishClass Channel. Today we're gonna be talking about the

  • difference between "by" and "until." So let's get started!

  • Okay, so first we're gonna talk about "by." "By" marks a deadline for an action to finish.

  • "By" marks the point where an action completes or is replaced by another

  • action, so really think about using "by" to express a deadline; something is going to

  • stop, or you must finish an action at this point in time. So we can think about

  • "by" as marking some point in the future. So "by" mark some point in the future

  • where an action is going to finish, an action is going to be completed.

  • So in an example sentence I have, I'll be at the office by 7 pm.

  • So in this sentence, the

  • speaker is not at the office, but 7 pm is the deadline, this is the point in

  • time at which the speaker will be at the office. The speaker is not at the office now,

  • but by 7 pm, by the 7 pm deadline, the speaker will be at the office.

  • This "will" shows us this is a future tense expression, and "by" shows us the deadline,

  • the point at which that expression or the point at which that action is going

  • to be completed. So this is how we use "by," to think about it like a deadline at

  • some point in time at which an action will be completed or finished.

  • Okay, so let's continue on to the other grammar point for today, which is "until."

  • "Until" also has a more casual form, we can use "till" or " 'til". You might

  • see both spellings used for "until," till or 'til. In most cases, it's good to use "until."

  • In casual speaking and maybe in casual writing, you can use the casual form, but

  • "until" is always polite and is always correct. Okay, so when we use "until," let's

  • talk about when to use "until." We use "until" to talk about a continuing

  • situation or a continuing state now in the present or in the future, but it's

  • going to change or stop, so the key difference, one key difference here,

  • perhaps, is a continuing situation, a continuing state. With "by," the nuance is a

  • deadline something is going to finish at a deadline; here, however, "until" gives us

  • the nuance of something that's continuing, something true now, for

  • example, but that may not be true in the future. "Until" marks the point where that

  • action or that state is going to finish or change.

  • Okay, so we can think of it rather than as a deadline, as a key point in the

  • future, somewhere where action A continues until a point where we use

  • "until," and then a second action begins. Something is going to change at the

  • "until" point. With "by," however, we don't have the nuance of an action changing, we

  • only have the nuance of a deadline, so here "until" is used to show that

  • something different is going to happen, or something will finish but

  • there's going to be a change after the the "until" point. So, for example, this sentence,

  • very similar to the "by" example sentence, is: I'll be at the office until 7 pm.

  • So here we have the future tense, I'll, I will, I'll be at the office until 7 pm.

  • This sentence shows us the speaker is at the office right now,

  • however, at 7 pm, "until" shows us that 7 pm is the point at which the

  • situation or this state is going to change, so at 7 pm, the speaker is

  • probably going to leave the office. "Until" shows us that right here, the action or

  • the state is going to change, so please keep that in mind.

  • "Until" shows you a change in something; "by" shows more of a deadline for an action that is continuing.

  • So I hope that we can practice this in a few example sentences now. Okay!

  • So let's try to choose the correct word to use in these example sentences.

  • Should we use "by" or should we use "until" in these cases? So the first one I have is:

  • He has to find a new job ____ March.

  • So in this case, we see a point in time, we can think about it, should we use "by" or "until" here? If we use "by,"

  • we see that the deadline, the deadline nuance, matches here.

  • He has to find a new job by March.

  • If we use "until," he has to find a new job until March, there's no

  • information in this sentence that shows us a hint or that gives us a hint about

  • how the action is going to change. "Until" does not make sense for this question, so

  • we should use "by" in this case. He has to find a new job by March is the correct

  • answer for this sentence. In the second sentence,

  • I'm not going to go to bed ____ I finish this movie.

  • So in this sentence, we have, at the end, I finish this movie,

  • so there's some action, maybe that's continuing here, and we have

  • another action. I'm not going to go to bed, in this case, it's a negative, so

  • there are two actions here, this is a pretty good hint that there's an action

  • that's going to change at some point instead of the nuance of a deadline. So

  • for the sentence, "until" is the best answer.

  • I'm not going to go to bed until I finish this movie.

  • This shows us that at this point, the point where I finish the movie, I'm

  • going to go to bed. This marks the change in the continuing

  • state or the continuing situation. So the next sentence is:

  • They need to write their reports _____ tomorrow.

  • So this sentence, there's no change in the

  • sentence, we don't have any hints about some kind of different action that's

  • going to happen, instead we have maybe what seems to be a deadline, some

  • requirement here, too. So if we try to use "until" it doesn't make sense, there's no

  • changing action, we can't guess about what might happen in the future or a

  • change that might happen. So "by" is the best answer here.

  • They need to write their reports by tomorrow.

  • Tomorrow is the deadline.

  • So we can guess that tomorrow is the deadline here, "by" shows us that it's the deadline in this case

  • for this task. Alright! Let's take a look at something a little bit different. Here we have,

  • We can't leave the house ____ your mother calls.

  • So again there are two situations, there are two actions involved in this sentence.

  • We have "leave the house" and "your mother calls" (makes a phone call). So because there are two

  • actions here, we can guess that there's some change that's going to happen, so

  • because we learned that "until" marks a change in actions, we know that "until" is

  • the better answer here. Okay.

  • We can't leave the house until your mother calls

  • would be the correct sentence here. Alright! So let's look at the next

  • sentence though, this one is a tricky sentence, this one is a little bit difficult, we have:

  • I'm not going to be there ____ 8 pm.

  • So here we have 8 pm at the end of a sentence, which looks like a deadline, right?

  • We have going to be there.

  • So should we use "by" or "until" for this sentence?

  • It's difficult because, actually, both are okay for this sentence.

  • I'm not going to be there by 8 pm is correct, and

  • I'm not going to be there until 8 pm is also correct.

  • However, the meanings are very different. Just as we practiced in these two

  • sentences, I'll be at the office until, I'll be at the office by 7 pm,

  • the same is true here.

  • I'm not going to be there by 8 pm

  • means I'm not going to be there at 8 pm, it's not possible for me, I can't go.

  • However, I'm not going to be there until 8 pm, this sentence means,

  • after 8 pm, or beginning at 8 pm and after, I'm going to be there. So please, be careful.

  • In some cases, both "by" and "until" are correct but they change the meaning

  • of the sentence. Okay, let's continue to another example.

  • So the next example sentence is also a little bit difficult, it's:

  • If my date doesn't arrive ____ 7 pm, I'm leaving.

  • Okay, so here, we have, we do have two actions, "doesn't arrive," my date doesn't arrive, a

  • negative point, and "I'm leaving." So it seems like there are two actions here.

  • However, we have this 7 pm, this marks a deadline, right? So if my date doesn't

  • arrive, there's some deadline here, if this is not completed, something is going

  • to happen, the person is going to leave. So in this case, 7 pm is showing a

  • deadline, so we have to use "by."

  • If my date doesn't arrive until 7 pm.

  • We could use that, but it doesn't sound so natural, so the nuance, again,

  • here is of a deadline, there's something that is going to happen at 7 pm.

  • 7 pm marks the endpoint in this situation, so we use "by" here.

  • Okay, let's go to the next pair, again, these are very interesting points.

  • We have to leave the beach ____ 10 am. And, we have to stay at the beach ____ 10 am.

  • Okay, so these two sentences, I included because I

  • wanted to show the emphasis of changing actions and continuing actions, so we can

  • see the verbs are different here. In the first sentence, we have "leave" so this is

  • a change, leaving a location; in the second sentence, I have "stay" which shows

  • a continuing action, stay in one place. So here, as you can guess then,

  • We have to leave the beach ____ 10 am.

  • Some change, some deadline, so we'll use "by" to show our deadline.

  • In the second sentence, we have to stay at the beach, stay shows a continuing action,

  • and then it's going to finish here, so we'll use "until."

  • We have to stay at the beach until 10 am.

  • This shows us a continuing action, and maybe at 10 am we'll leave the beach.

  • Alright! Let's go on to the next sentence.

  • I'm not going to travel abroad ____ I learn English.

  • Okay, so here there's no time point, there's no 10 am, 8 pm, tomorrow, and so on, so this is a

  • little more complex, maybe. We have "travel abroad" and "learn English," so it seems

  • there's no real deadline here, but we have, maybe, a change, maybe this shows us

  • some kind of change. Learning English marks a change.

  • So, I'm not going to travel abroad until I learn English.

  • This shows us that something different is going to happen in the future, so we should use "until" to

  • mark that change. Okay, our last example sentence for today is,

  • We told him to wake up ____ 6 am.

  • So, once more, our last sentence may be a little bit simple, but 6 am shows us an action, sort of this

  • deadline, you can see a lot of these use a time to mark a deadline for an action.

  • So here, we told him to wake up by 6 am.

  • This is the point at which something

  • must happen, so we should use "by" here.

  • Ok! Great! So those are a few examples sentences that you can have a look at and think about

  • when you're trying to decide whether to use "by" or "until." Keep in mind, however, there are some cases

  • where both "by" or "until" are correct, but the meaning is going to change

  • significantly depending on the one you use. So I hope this lesson was useful for

  • you, if you have any questions or if you want to try to make an example sentence

  • using"by" or "until," please be sure to leave us a comment.

  • If you liked this video, too, please be sure to hit the thumbs up and subscribe to our channel if you haven't already.

  • Thanks very much for watching this episode, and we will see you again soon. Bye!

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A2 US deadline pm sentence action continuing point

Difference between “By” and “Until” - Learn English Grammar

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    Samuel posted on 2018/04/13
Video vocabulary