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  • Hi, everybody!

  • My name is Alisha, and today I'm going to give a short explanation of some basic uses

  • of the present perfect tense.

  • So, let's begin!

  • Okay, the present perfect tense, what I'm going to talk about today, there are two basic

  • points to think about when using the present perfect tense.

  • We use the present perfect tense, first, number one, to express a life experience so this

  • can be a life experience you have had, or a life experience you have never had.

  • So, we use this grammar point to talk about life experience but with one key nuance, this

  • life experience, it happened at a non-specific or an unimportant point in time, so the point

  • in time when this life experience happened is not important in this sentence.

  • In the sentence where you use the present perfect tense, the point in time where you

  • had the experience is not the focus of your statement, the focus of your statement is

  • just the life experience.

  • So, to give a visualization of this on a timeline with past present and future, the present

  • perfect tense is used to express a life experience at a non specific point in time meaning we

  • use it for some experience you had at some point before the present, some point before

  • the current conversation.

  • So we use the present perfect tense to talk about a life experience that happened at a

  • non-specific point in the past.

  • So when specifically this experience happened is not important, this grammar point allows

  • us to simply say that we have or have not had an experience.

  • So this is the first grammar point about the present perfect tense, the simple use of the

  • present perfect tense.

  • The next point I want to talk about though, is the second point, number two, here we use

  • the present perfect tense to talk about an action that started in the past and continues

  • to the present.

  • The effect of an action that started in the past continues to the present.

  • So this is a grammar point that's slightly different from number one that I talked about,

  • so the image here is an action that started at some point in the past, it began at some

  • point in the past, and it continues to the present, or the effects of that action continue

  • to the present.

  • So this is something we can use to talk about where we live, our studies, our work experience,

  • for example.

  • I'll show you in a couple of example sentences a little bit later, but this is the second

  • use; the second grammar point I want to talk a little bit about today.

  • So, it's important to note that when we use this second point, when we use the second

  • use of this grammar point, we often use the wordsforandsinceto express

  • that action that began in the past and continued to the present.

  • It gives the listener some extra information about the duration about how long that action

  • has continued, so the difference betweenforandsince,” many people make a mistake

  • with this.

  • So use offorandsinceis important with grammar point number two here, especially

  • because it gives the listener some information about how long the action has been happening.

  • So in an example sentence, you could say, “I have lived in Paris for three years,”

  • or you could say “I have lived in Paris since 2014.”

  • So you can hearforis used for a period of time, “I have lived in Paris for three

  • years.”

  • Three years is a period of time, your period of time can be years, months, days, minutes,

  • hours, and so on.

  • Any period of time can be used with the wordfor.”

  • I have been teaching this lesson for few minutes.

  • I have been standing up for about an hour ,for example.

  • You can use a different time duration for different expressions, you can use this actually

  • a lot in your everyday life.

  • But on the other hand, let's talk aboutsince.”

  • Sosinceis used for a point in time.

  • When we want to talk about a point in time where an action began, where an action started,

  • we can usesince.”

  • So for example, in my sentence, I said, I have lived in Paris since 2014.

  • So thatsinceshows the exact year when I started living in Paris, I have lived in

  • Paris since 2014, and the action continues to the present.

  • So we can useforandsinceto show when an action began, and we also know

  • that that action is going to be continuing, that action will continue to the present.

  • So these are kind of the two grammar points I'd like to talk about.

  • Then lastly, I want to talk about how to make this grammar point, how to make the present

  • perfect tense.

  • So I have three categories here, there's positive statements, negative statements, and questions

  • statements.

  • These are just the basic forms of these three types of sentences.

  • So, let's talk about a few different sentence patterns that we can make.

  • I have positive statements, negative statements, and question statements.

  • These are just a few examples of the type of sentences and questions that you can make

  • with this grammar point.

  • So first, to make a positive statement, we'll usehaveorhas,” depending on

  • your subject.

  • If your subject is “I,” for example, we'll say “I have,” “you have,” andwe have;”

  • forheandshe,” “he has,” “she has,” and so on.

  • So depending on your subject, we will usehaveorhas,” next, we need to

  • include the past participle form of the verb.

  • So for example, “I have lived in Paris,” “livedis the past participle form of

  • the verblive.”

  • "I have been to Paris," so we can use these past participle forms of verbsbeen

  • in this case to talk about the present perfect tense.

  • To use the present perfect tense, please try to remember your past participle forms of

  • verbs.

  • But I find that one of the best ways to get used to using the correct form of the verb

  • here is just practicing in sentences, it's a little bit difficult to memorize all the

  • verbs just from a list, so try practicing them in sentences to remember.

  • Let's talk then about how to make a negative statement.

  • So a life experience you have not had, this is the sentence pattern that you can use to

  • describe that.

  • So again, depending on your subject, usehaveorhas;” “I have,” “he has,”

  • and so on.

  • Next, we'll includenever.”

  • So “I have never,” “he has never,” “they have never,” “you have never,”

  • and so on.

  • So thisnevershows no experience, this is our negative expression.

  • Then finally, we'll include the past participle form of the verb, so “I have never eaten horse,”

  • He has never visited Italy,” and so on.

  • These make negative statements withnever.”

  • Okay, and finally, a couple of different question patterns that we can use.

  • There are a lot of different questions, yes and no questions, information questions.

  • Let's take a look at a simple one, a simple yes/no pattern.

  • So again, we begin with ourhasandhavedepending on the subject here.

  • Sohave you been,” for example, with the past participle verb.

  • Has she seen,” and so on.

  • So again, we need to use this past participle form of the verb when making our questions.

  • You might have heard people useever;” I have here at the bottom, thisever

  • in this sentence style, “have you ever been to France?”

  • Have you ever eaten something?”

  • Thisever,” the nuance of thiseveris in your whole life experience, soever

  • kind of amplifies, “everemphasizes the importance of your life experience, in your

  • entire life, have you had the experience of something.

  • This "ever" emphasizes your entire life's experience.

  • If you say, for example, “have you seen that movie?”

  • It sounds like maybe it's a recent movie, but if you say "have you ever seen such and

  • such movie?"

  • It sounds like maybe the movie is a little bit older.

  • So especially in cases where you'd like to emphasize something that's not so recent,

  • you might consider using "ever" in your questions.

  • "Have you ever been to a different country?"

  • "Have you ever studied something else?"

  • So using ever shows that maybe you're thinking about something a little bit further back,

  • a little bit more in the past in someone's life.

  • Okay, so now that we know this, let's take a look at a few examples sentences that I've

  • prepared.

  • So first I have, they ______ in Germany.

  • So here, I want to use the verb "live," so the past participle form of the verb live

  • is lived, and my subject here is "they."

  • So I need to use "they have lived in Germany."

  • This is a very very simple sentence, they have lived in Germany.

  • I'm using this simple structure, this simple grammar point number one which we talked about.

  • So this is just a life experience, when did they live in Germany?

  • We don't know, but it's just the experience that we want to focus on in this sentence.

  • I could change the sentence to say, "they have lived in Germany since 1999."

  • In that case, it means they live in Germany now, also.

  • However, if they do not live in Germany, they only want to express their life experience

  • of living in Germany, they could say, they have lived in Germany.

  • They have lived in Germany, only that sentence.

  • So please be careful, "they have lived in Germany since 1999" shows they still live

  • in Germany.

  • Saying "they have lived in Germany" shows only a life experience.

  • If you'd like to give more information about where they live now, do it in the next sentence.

  • "They have lived in Germany, but they travel around a lot, and now they're living in Paris,"

  • for example.

  • So using the present progressive tense to give some more information in the next sentence.

  • Okay, so here we see grammar point number one is being used in this first sentence.

  • Let's take a look here at a negative sentence.

  • "I _____ never ______ to Italy" here.

  • We have the subject "I" here, we know that it's a negative sentence because it's "never,"

  • so we need to use "I have never," and then if I want to use the verb "be," if I want

  • to use the verb "be," the past participle form of the verb be is been.

  • "I have never been to Italy" is the correct sentence here.

  • So I'm expressing no experience in my life, "I have never been to Italy," meaning as we

  • talked about with grammar point number one, in my whole life I have not had an experience.

  • So there's no time point being used here, I have never had the experience of going to

  • Italy.

  • Ok, now, let's talk about the next example sentence, "she ______ the test three times."

  • So here I want to use the verb "take," so to take a test, take is going to be the verb

  • for this sentence.

  • So here my subject is "she," and I know this is a positive sentence, a positive statement,

  • so I'm going to use "has," "she has."

  • And take, the past participle form of the verb take is taken.

  • "She has taken the test three times."

  • So this sentence shows in her life experience, at three times, three points in her life,

  • she has taken the test.

  • So we don't know when she took the test but we know she has taken the three times at some

  • point in the past.

  • This is what this sentence teaches us, we don't know when, just that she has taken the

  • test three times.

  • Okay, next, let's look at this sentence, may be a very useful sentence for some people

  • who are watching this video on this channel.

  • So this is "I ________ English for two years."

  • Okay, so there's a big hint word here, I have the word "for" included in this sentence.

  • Remember we use "for" to talk about a time period, a time period.

  • So that connects to grammar point two which we talked about over here.

  • So remember with grammar point number two for present perfect tense, we're showing an

  • action that started in the past and continues to the present.

  • Okay, so the verb I want to use here is "study."

  • So my subject is "I," so I need to use "have" in this case, and the past participle form

  • of study is studied, so "I have studied English for two years."

  • This shows us a length of time, a period of time, a duration of your studies, it shows

  • your studies are continuing, you are still studying English.

  • Two years ago you started and you have continued since that time, you have continued study

  • in for two years.

  • So this sentence shows us that you have studied English, and how long you have studied English,

  • lots of information here.

  • Okay, let's talk about the next sentence, a question sentence now.

  • Okay, so here my subject, I have "he," "he" is here, so I know that because the subject

  • of the sentence is he, I need to begin my question with "has," "has he ______" So here

  • I want to use the verb "take," take out the trash is sort of a set phrase.

  • So the past participle form of take is taken.

  • "Has he taken out the trash?"

  • Meaning perhaps today at some point has he taken out the trash?

  • So maybe we don't know when, and when he took out the trash is not important, just has he

  • finished the task at some point today.

  • So we used the present perfect tense for that.

  • So we can use the simple past sentence "did he take out the trash?"

  • But the reason that it sounds a little bit more natural to say "has he taken out the

  • trash" is because of this point we talked about here, the effects of that action.

  • So if he did or did not take out the trash, it could affect the people around him, or

  • the environment around him.

  • So "has he taken out the trash?"

  • If the answer is no, it might mean there's some negative effect in the environment; if

  • the answer is yes, perhaps it means the people in the environment will be happy, there will

  • be a happy effect of that.

  • So this is the consideration, it's a very very small point.

  • If you ask "did he take out the trash," it's okay to use but keep in mind though you may

  • hear people say "has he taken out the trash" as well, and this is the reason why, the effect

  • of taking out the trash is what's kind of the nuance of this expression.

  • Great!

  • So let's talk about the next example sentence, "which countries _____ you ______ to?"

  • So in casual kind of more everyday friendly spoke in English, it's okay to end your sentence

  • with a preposition, in this case, to.

  • So here, I have an information question, which countries, I need to use "have" or "has" here,

  • plus "you," so that tells me I should use "have," "which countries have you," and I

  • want to use again the verb "be" here.

  • So I know it should be been.

  • "Which countries have you been to?"

  • So again, in your life experience, which countries have you been to?When is not important, just

  • in your life, where, which countries.

  • Okay, let's look at the next one.