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  • South China Sea

  • South China Sea has

  • become a global hot spot so we will be

  • discussing following aspects related to

  • it

  • Where is South China Sea?

  • Why it is important?

  • What are the present disputes?

  • Countries involved in the dispute

  • Timeline

  • Award of the permanent court of arbitration

  • Gobal community's reaction to the award

  • China's reaction

  • Impact on India

  • so let's start with where

  • if you see on a map South China Sea is the sea

  • surrounded by countries like China,

  • Vietnam

  • Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines, Taiwan.

  • On its west lies Bay of Bengal and

  • Indian Ocean and on east lies the pacific

  • ocean.

  • Now why it is important?

  • it is one of the busy international waterways

  • approximately 30% of global

  • maritime trade passes through it every year.

  • There is possibility of

  • approximately 11 billion barrels of

  • untapped oil number.

  • Possibility of 190 trillion cubic feet natural gas

  • Shortest route between Indian

  • ocean and Pacific through Malacca strait.

  • Thus, it holds a lot of economic and Strategic importance

  • Now what is the dispute and countries involved?

  • South China Sea has

  • hundreds of small islands, the main ones

  • that are Scarborough Shoal, Spartly Island

  • Paracel Island etc.

  • China claims most

  • of these islands but other countries

  • like Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan

  • Indonesia, Philippines have rival claims.

  • China based on its historical claims of

  • discovery and use going back to the 2nd

  • century AD says that it has right over

  • more than 80% of the South China Sea

  • China demarcates it through

  • its nine-dash line which is a "U" shape

  • line made of nine dashes.

  • The Chinese claims in the modern time

  • goes back to 1947 when it first

  • demarcated it with 11 dash line and

  • in 1949 it removed the two dashes and now

  • it's nine dash line.

  • Since 1970's it aggressively started

  • claiming the area.

  • Now the present dispute

  • In 2013, Philippines raised the

  • issue with PCA that is permanent court of

  • arbitration claiming that China has

  • violated its soverign right under the

  • 1982 UNCLOS which is United Nations

  • Convention on the Laws of the Sea.

  • It has taken control over the Scarborough Shoal.

  • Now what is the court ruling?

  • the court ruling which came in July 2016

  • in which it has - rejected China's historical

  • claims in the South China Sea.

  • Condemned china for

  • aggrevating the dispute by building

  • artificial islands in the area.

  • Violating Philippines sovereign right

  • right within its EEZ that is

  • Exclusive Economic Zone.

  • Damaging the marine ecosystem of the

  • area by doing artificial constructions.

  • World's reaction and China's reaction

  • the global community has welcomed the

  • verdict especially the countries

  • surrounding the South China Sea as well

  • as Japan.

  • China reaction:

  • It strongly declared the verdict as null and void

  • it says the PCA has no

  • jurisdiction in this case as it cannot

  • give rulings in matters of maritime

  • delimitation, historical base or

  • titles as per 2006 UNCLOS declaration.

  • It has cited examples of US

  • and UK rejecting the rulings of PCA in

  • Nicaragua and Malvinas cases respectively

  • It further says that the five-member tribunal

  • which gave the verdict was painted as

  • it was formed without its consent.

  • Now even thought the provisions of UNCLOS

  • make the award final and binding

  • but there is no provision of

  • enforcement mechanism as PCA is an

  • inter-governmental body and not a court

  • hence the ruling will not affect

  • China but China also realizes that

  • because of the whole issue

  • its relationship with ASEAN member

  • countries which have been derailed

  • because 4/10 of them directly

  • involved in it.

  • These four are Vietnam, Brunei,

  • Philippines and Malaysia.

  • Its ambition of becoming a superpower

  • connecting communities from Asia to Eurasia

  • through its various projects like

  • Maritime Silk Route, One belt-One Road

  • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

  • that is AIIIB etc. would take a

  • backseat if China itself does not

  • honor the international commitments.

  • It has to lead by example

  • so finally China has come out with the

  • statement that it upholds the principle

  • of freedom of navigation and is

  • committed to the peaceful settlement of

  • the issues in South China Sea through

  • negotiations.

  • What does the judgment for India?

  • Though India is not a direct

  • party to the dispute but it impacts our

  • economic and strategic interests like

  • now our warships do not have to

  • inform China while navigating through the

  • South China Sea, unlike in earlier

  • instances say for example in 2011 when our

  • warrship INS Airavat was stopped by the

  • Chinese nacy while it was floating through South

  • China Sea after returning from Vietnam.

  • We have similar maritime

  • dispute with Bangladesh in which the

  • same court under the same article 7

  • gave the award and abiding by it, we

  • peacefully gave away approximately eighty

  • percent of the disputed territory to Bangladesh.

  • India generally respects international

  • commitments be it with Bangladesh case or

  • Pakistan case vis-e-vis Indus water treaty.

  • China's reaction has elevated

  • our moral stature among the global

  • community.

  • China said

  • it can talk about supporting India's NSG

  • memberships, trying to lure India to

  • support its stand in South China Sea.

  • Here we can take diplomatic advantage of

  • the situation.

  • It's very important for success of

  • our "Act East Policy" initiative.

  • We need to secure our SLOC which is

  • Sea Lanes of Communication, freedom of navigation and

  • moreover we have energies deals with

  • Brunei, Vietnam etc. countries.

  • So it's very vital for our commercial interests.

South China Sea

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B1 china south china china sea sea south dispute

South China Sea Issue

  • 181 1
    冯靖函 posted on 2017/06/06
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