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  • In the 1980s

  • in the communist Eastern Germany,

  • if you owned a typewriter,

  • you had to register it with the government.

  • You had to register

  • a sample sheet of text

  • out of the typewriter.

  • And this was done

  • so the government could track where text was coming from.

  • If they found a paper

  • which had the wrong kind of thought,

  • they could track down

  • who created that thought.

  • And we in the West

  • couldn't understand how anybody could do this,

  • how much this would restrict freedom of speech.

  • We would never do that

  • in our own countries.

  • But today in 2011,

  • if you go and buy a color laser printer

  • from any major laser printer manufacturer

  • and print a page,

  • that page will end up

  • having slight yellow dots

  • printed on every single page

  • in a pattern which makes the page unique

  • to you and to your printer.

  • This is happening

  • to us today.

  • And nobody seems to be making a fuss about it.

  • And this is an example

  • of the ways

  • that our own governments

  • are using technology

  • against us, the citizens.

  • And this is one of the main three sources

  • of online problems today.

  • If we take a look at what's really happening in the online world,

  • we can group the attacks based on the attackers.

  • We have three main groups.

  • We have online criminals.

  • Like here, we have Mr. Dimitry Golubov

  • from the city of Kiev in Ukraine.

  • And the motives of online criminals

  • are very easy to understand.

  • These guys make money.

  • They use online attacks

  • to make lots of money,

  • and lots and lots of it.

  • We actually have several cases

  • of millionaires online, multimillionaires,

  • who made money with their attacks.

  • Here's Vladimir Tsastsin form Tartu in Estonia.

  • This is Alfred Gonzalez.

  • This is Stephen Watt.

  • This is Bjorn Sundin.

  • This is Matthew Anderson, Tariq Al-Daour

  • and so on and so on.

  • These guys

  • make their fortunes online,

  • but they make it through the illegal means

  • of using things like banking trojans

  • to steal money from our bank accounts

  • while we do online banking,

  • or with keyloggers

  • to collect our credit card information

  • while we are doing online shopping from an infected computer.

  • The U.S. Secret Service,

  • two months ago,

  • froze the Swiss bank account

  • of Mr. Sam Jain right here,

  • and that bank account had 14.9 million U.S. dollars on it

  • when it was frozen.

  • Mr. Jain himself is on the loose;

  • nobody knows where he is.

  • And I claim it's already today

  • that it's more likely for any of us

  • to become the victim of a crime online

  • than here in the real world.

  • And it's very obvious

  • that this is only going to get worse.

  • In the future, the majority of crime

  • will be happening online.

  • The second major group of attackers

  • that we are watching today

  • are not motivated by money.

  • They're motivated by something else --

  • motivated by protests,

  • motivated by an opinion,

  • motivated by the laughs.

  • Groups like Anonymous

  • have risen up over the last 12 months

  • and have become a major player

  • in the field of online attacks.

  • So those are the three main attackers:

  • criminals who do it for the money,

  • hacktivists like Anonymous

  • doing it for the protest,

  • but then the last group are nation states,

  • governments doing the attacks.

  • And then we look at cases

  • like what happened in DigiNotar.

  • This is a prime example of what happens

  • when governments attack

  • against their own citizens.

  • DigiNotar is a Certificate Authority

  • from The Netherlands --

  • or actually, it was.

  • It was running into bankruptcy

  • last fall

  • because they were hacked into.

  • Somebody broke in

  • and they hacked it thoroughly.

  • And I asked last week

  • in a meeting with Dutch government representatives,

  • I asked one of the leaders of the team

  • whether he found plausible

  • that people died

  • because of the DigiNotar hack.

  • And his answer was yes.

  • So how do people die

  • as the result of a hack like this?

  • Well DigiNotar is a C.A.

  • They sell certificates.

  • What do you do with certificates?

  • Well you need a certificate

  • if you have a website that has https,

  • SSL encrypted services,

  • services like Gmail.

  • Now we all, or a big part of us,

  • use Gmail or one of their competitors,

  • but these services are especially popular

  • in totalitarian states

  • like Iran,

  • where dissidents

  • use foreign services like Gmail

  • because they know they are more trustworthy than the local services

  • and they are encrypted over SSL connections,

  • so the local government can't snoop

  • on their discussions.

  • Except they can if they hack into a foreign C.A.

  • and issue rogue certificates.

  • And this is exactly what happened

  • with the case of DigiNotar.

  • What about Arab Spring

  • and things that have been happening, for example, in Egypt?

  • Well in Egypt,

  • the rioters looted the headquarters

  • of the Egyptian secret police

  • in April 2011,

  • and when they were looting the building they found lots of papers.

  • Among those papers,

  • was this binder entitled "FINFISHER."

  • And within that binder were notes

  • from a company based in Germany

  • which had sold the Egyptian government

  • a set of tools

  • for intercepting --

  • and in very large scale --

  • all the communication of the citizens of the country.

  • They had sold this tool

  • for 280,000 Euros to the Egyptian government.

  • The company headquarters are right here.

  • So Western governments

  • are providing totalitarian governments with tools

  • to do this against their own citizens.

  • But Western governments are doing it to themselves as well.

  • For example, in Germany,

  • just a couple of weeks ago

  • the so-called State Trojan was found,

  • which was a trojan

  • used by German government officials

  • to investigate their own citizens.

  • If you are a suspect in a criminal case,

  • well it's pretty obvious, your phone will be tapped.

  • But today, it goes beyond that.

  • They will tap your Internet connection.

  • They will even use tools like State Trojan

  • to infect your computer with a trojan,

  • which enables them

  • to watch all your communication,

  • to listen to your online discussions,

  • to collect your passwords.

  • Now when we think deeper

  • about things like these,

  • the obvious response from people should be

  • that, "Okay, that sounds bad,

  • but that doesn't really affect me because I'm a legal citizen.

  • Why should I worry?

  • Because I have nothing to hide."

  • And this is an argument,

  • which doesn't make sense.

  • Privacy is implied.

  • Privacy is not up for discussion.

  • This is not a question

  • between privacy

  • against security.

  • It's a question of freedom

  • against control.

  • And while we might trust our governments

  • right now, right here in 2011,

  • any right we give away will be given away for good.

  • And do we trust, do we blindly trust,

  • any future government,

  • a government we might have

  • 50 years from now?

  • And these are the questions

  • that we have to worry about for the next 50 years.

In the 1980s

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B1 TED online government motivated gmail printer

【TED】Mikko Hypponen: Three types of online attack (Mikko Hypponen: Three types of online attack)

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    Chih-lin Yu posted on 2017/04/03
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