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  • Ghost in the Shell is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series

  • of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow. The manga, first serialized

  • in 1989 under the subtitle of The Ghost in the Shell, and later published as its own

  • tankōbon volumes by Kodansha, told the story of the fictional counter-cyberterrorist organization

  • Public Security Section 9, led by protagonist Major Motoko Kusanagi, in the mid 21st century

  • of Japan. Animation studio Production I.G has produced

  • several different anime adaptations of Ghost in the Shell, starting with the 1995 film

  • of the same name, telling the story of Section 9's investigation of the Puppet Master. The

  • television series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex followed in 2002, telling an

  • alternate story from the manga and first film, featuring Section 9's investigations of government

  • corruption in the Laughing Man and Individual Eleven incidents. The year 2013 saw the start

  • of the Ghost in the Shell: Arise film series with the release of the first two episodes.

  • The third episode of the four-part series is set to be released on June 28, 2014.

  • Title Shirow has stated that he had always wanted

  • the title of his manga to be "GHOST IN THE SHELL", even in Japan, but his original publishers

  • preferredkaku Kidōtai. He had chosen "Ghost in the Shell" in homage to Arthur Koestler's

  • The Ghost in the Machine, from which he also drew inspiration.

  • Setting

  • Primarily set in the mid-twenty-first century in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama,

  • Niihama Prefecture, otherwise known as New Port City, the manga and the many anime adaptations

  • follow the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up

  • of former military officers and police detectives. Political intrigue and counter-terrorism operations

  • are standard fare for Section 9, but the various actions of corrupt officials, companies, and

  • cyber-criminals in each scenario are unique and require the diverse skills of Section

  • 9's staff to prevent a series of incidents from escalating.

  • In this post-cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to

  • the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows

  • them to interface their biological brain with various networks. The level of cyberization

  • varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic

  • parts, in cases of severe trauma. This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses,

  • with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg. The heroine of Ghost in

  • the Shell, Major Motoko Kusanagi, is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall

  • her as a child that ultimately required that she use a full-body prosthesis to house her

  • cyberbrain. This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from

  • highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend

  • to their whims. Media

  • Original manga

  • The Ghost in the Shell originally ran from April 1989 to November 1990 in Kodansha's

  • manga anthology Young Magazine, and was released in tankobon format on October 2, 1991. Ghost

  • in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface ran in Young Magazine from September 1991 to August

  • 1997. Four chapters that were not released in tankobon format from previous releases

  • were later collected into a single volume titled Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error

  • Processor serving as an interquel. The manga was published on July 23, 2003 by Kodansha.

  • Several art books have also been published for the manga.

  • Animated films

  • Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru

  • Oshii and animated by Production I.G. Ghost in the Shell was released in 1995 and follows

  • the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in 2008 as Ghost in the

  • Shell 2.0 with new audio and updated 3D computer graphics in certain scenes. Innocence, otherwise

  • known as Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, was released in 2004, with its story based

  • on a chapter from Man-Machine Interface. Video games

  • Ghost in the Shell was developed by Exact and released for the PlayStation on July 17,

  • 1997, in Japan by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is a third-person shooter featuring an

  • original storyline where the character plays a rookie member of Section 9. The video game's

  • soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.

  • Several video games were also developed to tie into the Stand Alone Complex television

  • series. Live-action adaptation

  • In 2008, DreamWorks and Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation

  • of the original manga. Avi Arad, Ari Arad, and Steven Paul were later confirmed as producers,

  • with Jamie Moss to write the screenplay. In October, 2009, it was announced that Laeta

  • Kalogridis had replaced Moss as writer. On January 24, 2014, it was reported that Rupert

  • Sanders will direct the film, with a screenplay by William Wheeler.

  • Stand Alone Complex

  • In 2002, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax, presenting a new telling

  • of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation

  • of the Laughing Man hacker. It was followed in 2004 by a second season titled Ghost in

  • the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, which focused on the Individual Eleven terrorist group. Both

  • seasons' primary storylines were compressed into OVAs broadcast as Ghost in the Shell:

  • Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man in 2005 and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex

  • Individual Eleven in 2006. Also in 2006, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid

  • State Society, featuring Section 9's confrontation with a hacker known as the Puppeteer, was

  • broadcast, serving as a finale to the anime series. The extensive score for the series

  • and its films was composed by Yoko Kanno. In addition to the anime, a series of published

  • books, two separate manga adaptations, and several video games for consoles and mobile

  • phones have been released for Stand Alone Complex. An MMORPG has also been in development

  • for several years. Arise

  • Ghost in the Shell: Arise is another animated iteration that takes place in yet another

  • alternate setting, set before the original manga. It is being released as a series of

  • OVAs, with Kazuchika Kise as chief director and Tow Ubukata as head writer. Cornelius

  • was brought onto the project to compose the score for the OVAs. A manga adaptation began

  • serialization in Kodansha's Young Magazine's April 2013 issue, released March 13, 2013.

  • Notes

  • References

  • External links Madman Entertainment's Australian distribution

  • release site

Ghost in the Shell is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series

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