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  • All right.

  • Thank you very much for having me.

  • This is the first time I've ever spoken at a TED Conference.

  • So, you know, you guys have the good taste of inviting me.

  • I had never passed anybody else's standard to be invited.

  • So, I'm flattered.

  • And perhaps we can make a little history today, right?

  • So, a little bit about my background.

  • I worked for Apple from 1983 to 1987

  • I was Apple's software evangelist.

  • My job was to convince people to write Macintosh software.

  • How many of you use Macs in this audience?

  • I love to see that. (Laughter)

  • Yeah.

  • And the rest of you what? Are you oppressed? I mean what --

  • (Laughter)

  • So, I worked for Apple,

  • I started some software companies,

  • and I became a writer and a speaker.

  • I returned to Apple as Apple's chief evangelist.

  • This is in the 1995 time frame.

  • And I had a great time with Apple not very long ago,

  • as we all know, Steve Jobs passed away.

  • And I worked for him twice.

  • One of the few people who survived working for him twice.

  • And he had a monumental effect on my life.

  • As well as really the Valley and probably the world, truly the world.

  • I think you'd have to rank him with Walt Disney and Edison and Steve Jobs.

  • I mean, who are truly visionaries.

  • You'll hear lots of people throw the "V" word around

  • and there are I think in my estimation really three people who qualify,

  • and it would be Edison, Disney and Jobs.

  • So, I created this presentation right after he passed away

  • because I wanted to get on paper, get onto PowerPoint, get into the world,

  • what I personally learned from Steve Jobs.

  • I'm not sure he intended to teach me this,

  • but this is what I learned from Steve Jobs.

  • And so, I would like his memory to live on forever

  • and forever to influence people.

  • So, the first thing that I learned from Steve Jobs is that

  • "Experts pretty much are clueless."

  • And this is a very important lesson for you

  • because there's a temptation to default to, shall I say, older people,

  • people with big titles, people who have declared themselves experts,

  • and if there's anything that Apple has proven,

  • is that the experts are often wrong.

  • And so, as you go through your life,

  • you start your companies, and you start your careers,

  • and you try to change the world.

  • I want you to learn to ignore experts.

  • This maybe contrary to what you've been taught

  • but experts usually define things within some established limits

  • and I think you should break those limits.

  • So, I view what I call bozosity --

  • I view bozosity as somewhat like the flu

  • where it can be something that you can be inoculated to.

  • So, how do you fight the flu?

  • You get a little bit of flu, so that when you encounter big flu,

  • you've already built up resistance.

  • So, I'm gonna inoculate you to bozosity

  • so that when you encounter big bozosity,

  • you will have already built up resistance.

  • So, let me show you some bozosity of experts.

  • First thing.

  • 1943, Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM says,

  • "There is a world market for maybe 5 computers."

  • I have 5 Macintoshes in my house.

  • (Laughter)

  • I have all the computers he anticipated in the world.

  • If you were Steve Jobs or Steve Wozniak or Bill Gates and you listened to this,

  • where would we be today? Next example.

  • "This telephone has too many shortcomings

  • to be seriously considered as a means of communication.

  • The device is inherently of no value to us."

  • (Laughter)

  • Western Union memo, 1876.

  • Oops!

  • You know, Western Union should be PayPal today.

  • It's not. It's very hard to go from telegraph to Internet,

  • if you write off telephone in the middle.

  • You know what I am saying, it's just too big of chasm to cross.

  • The last example is from our friends at DEC. Ken Olsen, founder of DEC,

  • great company, great entrepreneur.

  • "There is no reason why anyone would want a computer in their home."

  • (Laughter)

  • If you wanted to run something at home

  • you would just have to instead go back to your office and run a DEC minicomputer.

  • Three examples of bozosity,

  • and not from, you know, total people that you wouldn't expect.

  • These are all people you would expect.

  • Founder of IBM.

  • Founder of DEC.

  • You know, Western Union, hugely successful company back then.

  • You need to learn to ignore experts.

  • Next thing you need to do is to understand that

  • "Customers cannot tell you what they need."

  • They could tell you that "I want bigger, faster, cheaper status quo."

  • That's what they usually will tell you.

  • You really can't ask them about a revolution

  • because they can only define things, they can only describe things

  • in terms of products or services that they already have.

  • Bigger, faster, cheaper status quo.

  • If you truly want to change the world,

  • you need to ignore your customers.

  • And you need to jump curves. Let's talk about this.

  • This is the Macintosh 128K.

  • I promise you nobody in the world was asking for this computer in 1984.

  • No one said, "Give us a cheap little graphic toy, 128k of RAM,

  • no software," thanks to my efforts.

  • That's what we did.

  • Totally unexpected.

  • Nobody was asking for it.

  • It's because Steve Jobs, using the "V" word,

  • had a vision for what the future would be.

  • This is his vision - graphical user interface.

  • Next thing I learned from Steve Jobs is,

  • "You need to jump to the next curve,"

  • rather than duking it out on the same curve

  • trying to do something 10% better

  • you need to get to the next curve.

  • Don't stay on the same curve.

  • Great example - 1900s, Ice 1.0.

  • There was an ice harvesting industry in the United States.

  • This meant that Baba and Junior would go to a frozen lake

  • or frozen pond and cut a block of ice.

  • 9 million pounds of ice were harvested in 1900.

  • Ice 2.0.

  • Ice 2.0 was ice factory.

  • Now, you froze water, any city, any time of year.

  • Major breakthrough.

  • So much better.

  • They didn't have to be cold city.

  • They didn't have to be cold time of year.

  • Ice 3.0. the refrigerator curve.

  • Now, it wasn't about the ice factory with the iceman delivering ice to your house.

  • Now, you had your own personal ice factory.

  • Your own PC, your own "Personal Chiller."

  • (Laughter)

  • The great innovation occurs when you are not staying on the same curve.

  • Don't do a better ice harvester.

  • Don't add horses to the sleight.

  • Don't have a bigger sharper saw.

  • If you are an ice factory,

  • don’t have more ice factories,

  • don't build better ice factories,

  • don't have better icemen delivering ice

  • you wanna get to the next curve.

  • If you were a printer company,

  • although many of you are too young to understand this,

  • there used to be this thing called daisy wheel printer

  • and had this little ball in this, ball rotated and struck the paper.

  • If you were a daisy wheel printer company

  • and your idea of innovation was,

  • "Well, let's introduce more typefaces in larger sizes,"

  • that's not innovation.

  • Innovation occurs when you go from daisy wheel printer to laser printer.

  • Jump to the next curve.

  • Next thing that I learned is,

  • "The biggest challenges beget the best work in people."

  • I think one of the reasons why we did such great work at Macintosh division

  • is because Steve had such great expectations of us.

  • And, you know, we try to rise to his expectations.

  • This is an ad that shows some of the --

  • shall I say, youthful exuberance of Apple.

  • When IBM entered the computer business, Apple ran this ad

  • welcoming IBM to the computer business.

  • We were throwing down the gauntlet.

  • Welcome IBM, you huge successful East Coast mainframe computer company.

  • Welcome to the personal computer business.

  • Welcome to Vietnam.

  • (Laughter)

  • Next thing I learned from Steve is that "Design counts."

  • Many people can say that they appreciate design.

  • Many companies say that.

  • But truly, how many companies care about design?

  • Apple is one of the few, truly cares.

  • And you know what, not everybody in the customer base

  • truly cares about design.

  • To this day, 95% of the world doesn't use a Macintosh, only 5% does.

  • But they are people who really care about design and they count.

  • Design counts.

  • This is a Mac Book Air.

  • Thin, beautiful, design counts.

  • You have one?

  • Thin, beautiful, design counts.

  • Next thing is, when you make a presentation,

  • if you did nothing else but this, [Use big graphics and big fonts] (Laughter)

  • you would be better than 9/10 of the presentations in the world.

  • Seriously.

  • Seriously, just do this.

  • I'll show you a typical Steve Jobs slide.

  • What a great slide!

  • Big graphic.

  • "The best Windows app ever written: iTunes."

  • It's a typical Steve Jobs slide.

  • You know, any other CEO, there would be a matrix, right?

  • There would be a 4 column matrix,

  • and it would have this like checkboxes,

  • and it would be an 8 point font

  • and you couldn't read it.

  • The person giving the presentation would not be able to explain it.

  • This is the beauty of Steve Jobs.

  • The irony of saying that the best Windows app ever is iTunes from Apple.

  • Showing the logo of Windows.

  • This is a beautiful slide, this encapsulates the Steve Jobs presentation style.

  • Big graphics.

  • Big fonts.

  • The ideal font-size, just for you to know, maybe a rule of thumb --

  • The rule of thumb is find out who the oldest person is in the audience,

  • divide his or her age by two.

  • (Laughter) OK?

  • So, if you are talking to people of 60 years old, probably 30 points

  • 50 years old, 25 points.

  • Someday, you maybe pitching to a really young VC.

  • Let's say, the VC is sixteen years old.

  • At that point, God bless you, use the 8 point font.

  • (Laughter)

  • But until that time --

  • big fonts.

  • Big fonts.

  • The beauty of a big font is, it makes it so

  • that you cannot put a lot of text on your presentation.

  • You don't want a lot of text

  • because if you put a lot of text, you read the text

  • and if you read the text, your audience will be lost.

  • Your audience will be lost because they are going to say to themselves,

  • "This bozo is reading the slide verbatim.

  • I can read silently to myself faster than this bozo can read it orally to me.

  • So I will just read ahead." (Laughter)

  • And you will lose your audience.

  • Big font.

  • Big graphics.

  • Next thing.

  • "Changing your mind is truly a sign of intelligence."

  • You may think that you should formulate this great thought,

  • you should use these analytical skills,

  • you should come to this great conclusion

  • by God, you gotta stick to this conclusion

  • because you know you are right and you believe.

  • And I think what Apple has proven time and time again is that

  • if you change your mind, if you change the way you do things

  • in response to how customers actually consider you, treat you, or accept you,

  • it is a sign of intelligence and it will lead to success.

  • I'll give you an example.

  • Believe it or not, when the iPhone first came out,

  • this was the press release that basically set the Apple perspective on apps:

  • "Our innovative approach, using Web 2.0-based standards,