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  • Prof: Now what I'd like to do is something that you'll

  • probably cut out because of copyright issues but it's a kind

  • of fun warm-up anyway, so we're going to go ahead and

  • do this and then we'll actually start.

  • I got about a one-minute warm-up here,

  • ladies and gentlemen, and we've got Lynda Paul who's

  • like a Vegas show act.

  • Okay?

  • She's going to warm us up and we're going to get up and we're

  • going to get into it here right off the bat in our exploration

  • of duple and triple meter so here we go, Lynda Paul.

  • Lynda Paul: All right.

  • Those of you in my section will already be familiar with this.

  • Don't give the game away.

  • Everybody stand up.

  • Sorry.

  • Prof: It'll be worth it.

  • Lynda Paul: It's worth it.

  • All right.

  • You have two moves.

  • For the duple meter, you have the march.

  • You may have to turn to the side.

  • Prof: It's okay.

  • They can march.

  • Lynda Paul: And it just goes like this,

  • Feel the duple.

  • Prof: Which foot gets the down beat,

  • right or left?

  • Lynda Paul: Left.

  • Always left.

  • Prof: Okay.

  • Sorry.

  • Didn't know.

  • Lynda Paul: And if you hear a triple,

  • your step is this: down-up-up, down-up-up,

  • down- up-up, down-up-up.

  • This is to get the feel of the duple and the triple.

  • So see what you can do.

  • Prof: You can do this on your test too.

  • >

  • They've got it.

  • >

  • Okay. We got that.

  • >

  • Okay.

  • So that's our warm-up for today.

  • Now from the ridiculous to the sublime, we're going to go to

  • our first slide.

  • And that takes us to the question of sound.

  • We have never really nailed this down, I don't think.

  • When an instrument--any instrument--the piano,

  • plays a note <<plays note>>

  • what you hear is one fundamental pitch.

  • You are also hearing very small amounts of other pitches.

  • Usually, these get charted out into the so-called overtones,

  • thirty-two partials or overtones, and you can see them

  • playing out here .

  • The amount of force in each of those partials--

  • we'll call it the amplitude--of each of the partials,

  • varies according to the acoustical properties of a

  • particular instrument, so that each of these peaks

  • here represents a particular partial,

  • but you can see that they do not decline in any kind of

  • straight decline.

  • Some of them bump up from time to time--more push there,

  • more volume there.

  • So when we hear any particular sound,

  • again, we're hearing an amalgam of many sounds,

  • and the importance of each of these partials in the aggregate

  • of sound is what gives it its particular color.

  • If you've ever worked with a synthesizer: I think,

  • in very simple terms here, what an electronic synthesizer

  • does is play with these.

  • They can push down the seventh partial.

  • They can bring up the ninth partial.

  • They can push down the^( )thirteenth partial and bring up

  • the fifteenth and thereby change the sound of a clarinet into a

  • French horn.

  • They play with these partials on each of these notes,

  • but this is just <<plays note>>

  • one sound with all of these other things mixed in to the

  • medley that produces the quality or timbre of a particular

  • instrument.

  • Okay. That's that point.

  • Now we're going to go on and review a few things that we

  • talked about last lecture.

  • Remember we were talking about beat, which is the regular

  • pulse, the pulse of life, the pulse of music,

  • that comes at regular intervals.

  • We were talking about the subdivision of that pulse,

  • the organizing of that pulse into meters,

  • and that we had this capacity to indicate what the meter was

  • by these numbers: two-four,

  • and three-four for duple and triple meter.

  • Remember we were just demonstrating,

  • listening to the Ravel Bolero.

  • Then we had rhythms superimposed.

  • We had two prominent rhythms up above.

  • Rhythm is simply these patterns, usually repeating

  • patterns, of longs and short that get superimposed as they

  • set up above the basic beat underneath.

  • We also learned from Ravel's Bolero that nobody

  • actually plays the beat-- that's too basic--but our mind,

  • hearing all of these complex rhythms,

  • extrapolates the beat from this complexity.

  • Okay, that by way of a quick review.

  • Now two other terms that we have touched on.

  • What's tempo in music?

  • Yes, gentleman?

  • Student: The pace or the speed of the piece?

  • Prof: It's the pace or speed of the--

  • Student: Piece.

  • Prof: --of the piece, particularly the beat.

  • The beat will do--control--that,

  • so it's the pace or speed of the beat.

  • Thanks very much.

  • We can take a particular--Here I'm conducting in three:

  • one, two, three, one,

  • two, three, one, two,

  • three, one, two, three, one, two,

  • three, and obviously I'm accelerating

  • there.

  • We use the fancy Italian term "accelerando"

  • for that.

  • We could be going with a very fast tempo, three,

  • one, two, three, one, two, three,

  • one, two, three, and slow it down.

  • Obviously, we would be retarding the music,

  • ritardando or a retard at that particular point.

  • All right.

  • With that by the way of background, let's go on to

  • two--what we might call rhythmic devices here--two rhythmic

  • devices.

  • The first is syncopation.

  • We worked a little bit with this last time.

  • For syncopation, let's go to the board over

  • here.

  • If we have a particular rhythm, and this is a rhythm,

  • and here are the beats and the meter underneath,

  • we would be coming along one, two-and,

  • one, two,>.

  • Okay.

  • Obviously, this is the bar of syncopation--we did this in

  • section last week--but you can see >

  • this note is the syncopated note.

  • It's jumping in too early.

  • We expect it to sound there.

  • So what syncopation is is simply the insertion of an

  • impulse, a "hit" if you will,

  • at a metrical place that we do not expect it to be.

  • Usually, the metrical impulse is on the beat.

  • With syncopation the impulse can come suddenly off the beat,

  • and it gives it a little snap or jazzy aspect to the music.

  • We talked about that in the Cole Porter last time.

  • Here is one I remember.

  • A couple of years ago there was a clothing store called TJ Maxx.

  • They had this little jingle out there, >

  • , just a little bit of this, and then you were supposed to

  • say, "TJ Maxx."

  • I'll remember TJ Maxx forever because of this guy's little

  • syncopation.

  • It's in there.

  • We really remember these musical .

  • Think about back in your childhood, your nursery rhymes,

  • the capacity of aural material to be retained.

  • Okay.

  • >

  • Here's beat two.

  • It jumps in too early.

  • This actually I think derives from a Greek word,

  • "synkope," s-y-n-k-o-p-e,

  • synkope.

  • Is that how you pronounce it?

  • But it means to cut short, to cut short and therefore get

  • in a little bit earlier.

  • Now the master of syncopation, of course, in music was Scott

  • Joplin, African American composer writing a lot around

  • the area of St.

  • Louis in the turn of the twentieth century.

  • You know his music from pieces such as "The

  • Entertainer," so let's play just a little bit

  • of "The Entertainer" very slowly,

  • and my question to you is: where is the syncopation?

  • Is it in the left hand of the piano or in the right hand of

  • the piano?

  • Is it in the bass or the melody?

  • >

  • Where's the syncopation?

  • Left hand? Right hand?

  • Right hand.

  • Bass is just going--Well, what is the bass going?

  • >

  • In that fashion, one--It's playing eighth notes,

  • one-and, two-and; it's subdividing the beat

  • whereas the syncopation >

  • --it's there, >

  • and so on.

  • So you're tapping your foot.

  • You're tapping the beat and a lot of the music is coming off

  • the beat.

  • Let's see if we can do that.

  • Let's see if we can create our own syncopated orchestra in

  • here.

  • We've got an example up here.

  • This is the conception of it.

  • Let's see if we can actually execute it.

  • What I'd like you to do: Everybody tap your foot.

  • We're going to do this in four, just for--just because I think

  • it works out better so everybody tap your foot with a four beat.

  • Here we go.

  • One, two, three, four, one, two,

  • three, four, nice and loud.

  • Come on. I want to hear it.

  • Okay.

  • Now take your hand on a chair or your notebook,

  • your computer or whatever, and do syncopation off of that

  • according to this pattern.

  • One, two, ready, go.

  • >

  • Okay. Good.

  • I see Daniel down here has got this nailed.

  • Okay.

  • So that's what syncopation is and it isn't much more difficult

  • than that.

  • The second rhythmic device that we have to be aware of in music

  • we frequently encounter is this concept of the triplet.

  • Now most music that we listen to--and here's a good example

  • because it plays it out so clearly in the melody--

  • most music that we listen to takes the beat--

  • one, two, one, two--and subdivides it into

  • two: one-and, two-and--musicians like this

  • "and" business--

  • one-and, two-and, one-and, two-and--

  • So each quarter note has two eighth notes.

  • We could also take the two eighth notes and divide them

  • into two sixteenth notes and then we get a-one-a-and,

  • a-two-a-and, a-one-a-and,

  • a-two-a-and something like that.

  • >

  • >

  • But of course most music--although it operates that

  • way--not all music continues in that fashion.

  • Oftentimes--occa sionally--occasionally,

  • oftentimes, somewhere between the two--the beat is divided

  • into three.

  • So what I've got here is an example of that.

  • It's actually what we call "My Country 'Tis Of

  • Thee" I think, >

  • , so that's it.

  • I think it's been set by a number of composers over the

  • years.

  • Beethoven set it under the heading of "God Save the

  • King," George the Third or somebody.

  • No, George the Third was probably dead by then.

  • Who was the king of England, let's say, in 1810?