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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson is a special lesson. It's

  • an introduction to dependent clauses. Now, before I begin, I want you to understand I'm

  • only going to look at the functions of the dependent clauses today. I'm not going to

  • look at how they're built, how to structure them, the conjunctions they use, the relative

  • pronouns they use; only about the functions, because it's very important that you are able

  • to recognize the different types of dependent clauses. Once you recognize the function of

  • a clause, you know how it's built, you know what it's doing in the sentence, you can understand

  • the sentence better, you can write better sentences.

  • So, dependent clauses, what are they? First of all, they're also called subordinate clauses.

  • You might see "subordinate", you might see "dependent". They're very different from the

  • independent clause. The independent clause is a clause that can stand by itself, and

  • has a complete meaning. It doesn't have... It doesn't need any other information. A "clause"

  • is a collection of words-sorry-that must include a subject and a verb.

  • Okay, we have basically four types. Technically, we think of three types, but there's one extra

  • one that we're going to look at today. We have "noun clauses", we have "adjective clauses"-adjective

  • clauses" are also called "relative clauses"-we have "adverb clauses", and we have something

  • called a "that clause", which is really none of these three. It's closest to the noun clause,

  • but it doesn't function like a noun clause.

  • We're going to start with the noun clause, then. What is a noun clause? First of all,

  • a noun clause has a specific function in a sentence. It is used, just like it's called,

  • it's used like a noun. You think of a noun clause as you would a noun, except that it's

  • a clause. There's a subject, there's a verb, there's other pieces to it. We can use it

  • as a subject of a sentence, we can use it as a subject of an otherwise independent clause.

  • "What you do in your free time is your business." So, look... Let's, first of all, look at all

  • the verbs, here. We have "do" and we have "is". We have two verbs. The subject for "you"...

  • For "do" is "you". Okay? What is the subject for "is"? Well, if you look around, it's not

  • "time", it's not "your", and it's not "you" because "you" is already being used. So the

  • whole thing: "What you do in your free time", this is the subject, this is the verb, this

  • is the subject complement. Okay?

  • Now, very rarely do people actually use noun clauses as subjects, especially in writing.

  • What they might say is "it": "It is your business what you do in your free time." Okay? We call

  • this a "preparatory 'it'". It means we prepare you for the subject that's going to come later.

  • Why do we do this? Because it's more... It's a bit awkward to do it like this. It's more

  • convenient to begin with "it", get to the verb, and get to whatever comes after the

  • verb, and put the subject later because it's long. Okay? "What you do in your free time",

  • subject, "is", verb.

  • Now, we can use it as a subject complement. A subject complement looks like an object,

  • but it is not. It comes after a "be" verb. It comes after a "be" verb, okay? And it completes

  • the meaning of the subject. So, Tom, what do we know about Tom? "Tom isn't"... Isn't

  • what? He "isn't what you would call friendly." This is the noun clause. There is the subject,

  • there is the verb. These, by the way, these are just called the pronouns or the conjunctions,

  • whatever you want to call them. They begin the clause. Now, as we know from other lessons,

  • "is" works like an equal sign. Tom, not really friendly. That's basically what this sentence

  • means. This is the subject complement to Tom, noun clause. Notice the conjunction "what"

  • can only be used in a noun clause; not in an adjective clause, not in an adverb clause.

  • Okay, we can also use a noun clause as the object of the sentence. "She said she was sorry."

  • So, what do we have, here? We have the subject, we have the verb. She said what?

  • What did she say? That "she was sorry". Subject, verb. Okay? I put "that" in brackets because

  • "that" is a conjunction that we can often take out. You have the subject, here; we don't

  • need this. This is only used to introduce the noun clause. We can take it out, we can

  • leave it in. Up to you. Some sentences, it is necessary to keep "that" in the sentence

  • if it's not clear without it. If it's very clear without it, take it out. So, she said what?

  • This is the object, this whole thing. Actually, I'll put it here. Object to "said".

  • This is the subject complement to "Tom", this is the subject to "is".

  • We can also use noun clauses as objects of prepositions. "I don't worry." is a complete

  • sentence. This is an independent clause; I don't actually need anymore. But I want to

  • tell you specifically what I don't worry about. So I use the proposition "about", and now,

  • "what others think", again, you have the conjunction, you have your subject, you have your verb.

  • This whole thing is now the object of "about". About what? "What others think". The whole

  • thing, this whole thing: "about what others think", this whole thing is a complement to

  • this sentence. Okay.

  • Now, we can also have an object of a verb that is not the main verb.

  • "I really want to believe." this is a complete sentence.

  • I have here a subject, verb, object. I don't

  • need anything else, but I want to add some more information. I want to add a complement.

  • So: "that tomorrow will be better", I have my subject, I have my verb. This whole thing

  • is a noun clause, acting as an object to "believe". But "believe" is not the main verb of the

  • sentence. It is just... It is part of the object, the infinitive object. And I have...

  • But it's a transitive verb, means it can take an object, so I give it an object. This object

  • now acts as a complement to the word, to the verb "believe". So here is basically the noun

  • clauses that you will find in your readings, the noun clauses that you should use in your

  • writing, and we're going to move now to the adjective clauses.

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at the adjective clauses or the relative clauses. Just like

  • the nouns, the adjective clauses work as adjectives. They are modifying a noun, usually one that

  • comes before it. Okay? We're going to look at three types. It's not really three types;

  • there's only two types, but one of them is a little bit different, so we look at it separately.

  • You have identifying adjective clauses in which case you do not use commas. What does

  • "identifying" mean? It means that you're pointing to this noun and you're telling me what it

  • is, or who it is, or where it is. It has to be specific, because otherwise, I don't know.

  • The noun is too general. You need to identify it so there's no commas.

  • On the other hand, we have the non-identifying one. If you're giving me a noun and I know

  • what the noun is, maybe it's a name, maybe you've already mentioned it in a previous

  • sentence, so I already know who, what, where this noun is. So, now, anything that you tell

  • me about it is extra information. You're still modifying the same thing, but you're giving

  • me extra. In this case, you're going to use commas before and after the adjective clause.

  • If the adjective clause ends the sentence, then of course, there's a period, not a second comma.

  • And we have situational adjective clauses. Now, technically, they work the same way except

  • that they're not modifying a noun. They're modifying an entire phrase or clause that

  • came before it. We're going to look at examples.

  • So number one, identifying. "The girl who sold me the car said it was hers." Now, if

  • you ask: Who is this girl? I don't know. Lots of girls out there, so you need to tell me

  • specifically which girl we're talking about. So that's why we have "who sold me the car".

  • Oh, sorry.

  • This is an adjective clause. We have the subject. So in adjective clauses,

  • this can also be the subject and the verb. Okay? It is telling you something about the

  • girl. It is telling you specifically which girl you're talking about. So now I know.

  • In the next sentence, when you say "the girl", if you're still talking about the same girl

  • and the same situation, in the next sentence, you don't need to give me an identifying clause.

  • In the next sentence, if you want to give me more information about her, then you're

  • giving me a non-identifying, because here, you've identified her. Next sentence, I know

  • who she is; it's all extra information. Okay? Just a little bit of a refresher: "said" is

  • a verb. What is this? This is a little bit of review. It's a noun clause, of course.

  • It's an object to "said". We took the "that" out.

  • Okay, let's look at the non-identifying clause. "My high school English teacher". Now, we're

  • talking about my high school, so I went to one high school and we're talking about one

  • specific class, and therefore, one specific teacher. So she's already been identified.

  • "My high school English teacher", that's a very specific person. So I don't need to identify

  • her anymore; I've already identified her. So, now, I'm going to give you some information

  • about her, but it's all extra. If I take this clause out... It actually starts here. Oh.

  • This is the adjective clause. If I take it out, my sentence is still okay.

  • "My high school English teacher sends me a postcard." No problem.

  • Good sentence. Complete idea. I know who she

  • is, I know what she did. No problem. So this is extra, and so I put it between commas.

  • Okay? "Who is retired", so again, I have my subject and my verb, and "who now lives in

  • Florida". Because of the "and", I don't need to say this again. This just carries over

  • to here. ", who is retired and who now lives in Florida, sends me a postcard". Between

  • commas. Just extra information. Okay? But it is still telling you something about my

  • English teacher. It is still giving you information about the noun that came before it. Just like

  • this one tells you something about the noun that came before it.

  • Now, although it's not very common, you could have an adjective clause that doesn't modify

  • the noun right before it. "I bought myself a motorcycle for my birthday." This is an

  • independent clause. It is fine. You don't need any more information. I could put a period,

  • here, and be finished with this sentence. But I want to give you some more information,

  • I want to give you my wife's reaction. Okay? "Which made my wife crazy". Now, you're thinking

  • "which", are we talking about birthday? My birthday made her crazy? That doesn't make

  • sense. She's my wife, she loves me, she loves my birthday, she wants to buy me a cake, she

  • wants to make me a cake, but that's not what made her crazy. What made her crazy is that

  • I bought myself a motorcycle. This situation, that's why I called it a situational, this

  • situation is what I am describing. This situation made my wife crazy. So, we don't modify the

  • last noun. We actually modify the whole situation and we use a comma. We end the sentence with

  • it, so we use a period. If it was in the middle of a sentence, of course, comma and continue

  • the sentence. So there you have three adjective clauses.

  • And again, just like with the noun clauses, sometimes you can take out the relative pronoun.

  • In this case, you can't because it is also the subject. But we will do... I will do another

  • video lesson about how to construct all the different types of adjective clauses, noun

  • clauses, etc. The only thing I will mention right away today: We use "that" with identifying

  • adjective clauses. So if you're identifying a thing, use "that". If you're modifying...

  • If you're describing a noun that's a thing, but it's non-identifying, use "which". "That",

  • no comma; "which", with comma. Okay? Identifying, non-identifying, in case you're wondering:

  • "What's the difference between 'that' and 'which'?" Now, some teachers will tell you

  • they're both the same, you can use either one. You can. If you're going to write an

  • IELTS test, a TOEFL test, an SAT test, a GRE/GMAT test, not okay. Identifying, non-identifying

  • is the correct distinction between these two. Okay, let's look at adverb clauses now.

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at adverb clauses. And just like noun clauses and adjective

  • clauses, what does an adverb clause do or how does it work? It works like an adverb.

  • And what does it do? It shows our relationship. Now, what is the relationship between? It's

  • very important to remember that a dependent clause is always joined to an independent

  • clause or to other dependent clauses; it never stands by itself. Right? So an adverb clause

  • has a relationship with whatever clause it is attached to, usually the independent clause.

  • What kind of relationships? Well, here are some examples: there's a contrast, there's

  • condition, there's reason, there's time. Okay? There are others as well, but we're just going

  • to look at a few just to get an example of the types of relationships you might have.

  • So, adverb clauses, of course, have their own conjunction. They're not "what", they're

  • not "that". We don't use "what", we don't use "that". You could use "who", you could

  • use "which". No, we can't use "which", that's for a noun or an adjective. "Although", "if",

  • "because", "when". Contrast, condition, reason, time. Okay? So we can use all of these conjunctions

  • to show all kinds of relationships.

  • "Although he practiced every day", here's your adverb clause, "he didn't win", here's

  • your independent clause. This is a sentence: "He didn't win." But the contrast, though:

  • "Although he practiced every day". So, what's the...? What's the relationship of contrast?

  • It means opposite ideas. Right? Or opposite expectations. You think, he practiced every

  • day, he should be very good, he should win the contest. But he didn't win. So this is

  • like "but", although it creates a dependent clause.

  • "If you help me pass this test, I'll buy you lunch." On what condition will I buy you lunch?

  • On the condition that you help me pass this test. So if you help me, I will buy. Okay?

  • "I lent her my notes"-why?-"because she missed too many classes". So I'm showing you the

  • reason that I lent her my notes. Independent clause, adverb clause, showing reason.

  • Now, this sentence I made a little bit more complicated. I put in a few dependent clauses,

  • because you remember at the beginning I said there's a fourth type, "that" clause? We're

  • going to see that now, too. "When my mother, who was only 18 when she had me, told me I

  • should wait until I got older to marry Lucy, I knew she was really happy I met the right

  • person." Wow, that's a very complex sentence, you're thinking that, right? Too many things

  • going on. Well, not so complicated. "When my mother", okay? Where's the main verb?

  • "Told me", "When my mother told me", that's your first adverb clause.

  • Here, we have a comma and a comma. Here, we have an adjective clause.

  • Here, we have an adverb clause. An adjective

  • clause is telling me something about my mother, but commas tell me it's not identifying. I

  • only have one mother. She's already been identified, she's my mother. Not your mother, not his

  • mother, not her mother. My mother. There's only one. So this is non-identifying adjective

  • clause. "When my mother told me", told me what? "I should wait",

  • noun clause, object to "told". "Told me I should wait until I got older".

  • Until when should I wait? Here,

  • we have another adverb clause, with time. Right? This relationship of this clause is

  • to this clause. I should wait until a specific time. This is a noun clause. "To marry Lucy",

  • this is just a complement. "I knew she was really happy", what's the relationship? There's

  • no conjunction. This is a complete idea by itself. This sentence can stand by itself.

  • This is your independent clause. Now, remember the "that" clause that I told you about? So,

  • technically, there is a "that" here. But I took it out because I don't need it, I have

  • a subject. Remember "that"... We generally use "that" just to introduce a clause. It

  • doesn't have any particular function other than to introduce the clause.

  • So "I met the right person".

  • Now, is this modifying, "happy" or "she" or anything? No. So it's not an adjective

  • clause. There's no relationship of any kind, here, so it's not an adverb clause. There's

  • no noun and there's no situation, so it's not a noun clause.

  • Basically, this is called a complement.

  • Complement.

  • It is just completing this idea. It's just a "that clause" we call

  • it. It doesn't really have any type of a noun, adjective, adverb, but it just gives you a

  • little bit of extra information to complete the idea. "She was really happy that I met somebody",

  • this completes the idea of basically happiness. So there you go, adverb clause,

  • adjective clause, noun clause, adverb clause, independent clause, and a "that" clause all

  • in one sentence.

  • Now, why did we learn all this stuff today? Why did we have this introduction to dependent

  • clauses? So that when you see a sentence like this and it looks very complicated to you,

  • understand that all you have to do is pick out all the different clauses, find out what

  • is their function, what are they doing in this sentence. If you understand what they

  • are doing, what they are modifying, what they are explaining, what relationship they're

  • showing, then you know what the sentence means. When you know the independent clause, that's

  • your main idea. "I knew she was really happy", this is the main idea. This is the most important

  • piece of information. All this other stuff just gives you more information; it just modifies

  • the main idea. Know the function, know the type of clause, know how everything is working.

  • Now, if you understand all this, do keep in mind I will make other videos, as I said.

  • I will show you how to construct a noun clause, an adjective clause, and an adverb clause.

  • Okay? I will show you how to make them, I will show you how to analyze them. They come

  • in different structures, they