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  • (翻訳: Hiroko Kawano 校正: Maki Sugimoto)

  • What does it mean to spend our time well?

  • I spend a lot of my time

  • thinking about how to spend my time.

  • Probably too much -- I probably obsess over it.

  • My friends think I do.

  • But I feel like I kind of have to, because these days,

  • it feels like little bits of my time kind of slip away from me,

  • and when that happens, it feels like parts of my life are slipping away.

  • Specifically,

  • it feels like little bits of my time get slipped away

  • to various things like this,

  • like technology -- I check things.

  • I'll give you an example.

  • If this email shows up --

  • how many of you have gotten an email like this, right?

  • I've been tagged in a photo.

  • When this appears,

  • I can't help but click on it right now.

  • Right? Because, like, what if it's a bad photo?

  • So I have to click it right now.

  • But I'm not just going to click "See photo,"

  • what I'm actually going to do is spend the next 20 minutes.

  • (Laughter)

  • But the worst part is that I know that this is what's going to happen,

  • and even knowing that's what's going to happen

  • doesn't stop me from doing it again the next time.

  • Or I find myself in a situation like this,

  • where I check my email and I pull down to refresh,

  • But the thing is that 60 seconds later,

  • I'll pull down to refresh again.

  • Why am I doing this?

  • This doesn't make any sense.

  • But I'll give you a hint why this is happening.

  • What do you think makes more money in the United States

  • than movies, game parks and baseball combined?

  • Slot machines.

  • How can slot machines make all this money

  • when we play with such small amounts of money?

  • We play with coins.

  • How is this possible?

  • Well, the thing is ...

  • my phone is a slot machine.

  • Every time I check my phone,

  • I'm playing the slot machine to see,

  • what am I going to get?

  • What am I going to get?

  • Every time I check my email,

  • I'm playing the slot machine,

  • saying, "What am I going to get?"

  • Every time I scroll a news feed,

  • I'm playing the slot machine to see,

  • what am I going to get next?

  • And the thing is that,

  • again, knowing exactly how this works -- and I'm a designer,

  • I know exactly how the psychology of this works,

  • I know exactly what's going on --

  • but it doesn't leave me with any choice,

  • I still just get sucked into it.

  • So what are we going to do?

  • Because it leaves us with this all-or-nothing relationship

  • with technology, right?

  • You're either on,

  • and you're connected and distracted all the time,

  • or you're off,

  • but then you're wondering,

  • am I missing something important?

  • In other words, you're either distracted

  • or you have fear of missing out.

  • Right?

  • So we need to restore choice.

  • We want to have a relationship with technology

  • that gives us back choice about how we spend time with it,

  • and we're gonna need help from designers,

  • because knowing this stuff doesn't help.

  • We're going to need design help.

  • So what would that look like?

  • So let's take an example that we all face:

  • chat -- text messaging.

  • So let's say there's two people.

  • Nancy's on the left and she's working on a document,

  • and John's on the right.

  • And John suddenly remembers,

  • "I need to ask Nancy for that document before I forget."

  • So when he sends her that message,

  • it blows away her attention.

  • That's what we're doing all the time: we're bulldozing each other's attention,

  • left and right.

  • And there's serious cost to this,

  • because every time we interrupt each other,

  • it takes us about 23 minutes, on average,

  • to refocus our attention.

  • We actually cycle through two different projects

  • before we come back to the original thing we were doing.

  • This is Gloria Mark's research combined with Microsoft research,

  • that showed this.

  • And her research also shows that it actually trains bad habits.

  • The more interruptions we get externally,

  • it's conditioning and training us to interrupt ourselves.

  • We actually self-interrupt every three-and-a-half minutes.

  • This is crazy.

  • So how do we fix this?

  • Because Nancy and John are in this all-or-nothing relationship.

  • Nancy might want to disconnect,

  • but then she'd be worried:

  • What if I'm missing something important?

  • Design can fix this problem.

  • Let's say you have Nancy again on the left,

  • John on the right.

  • And John remembers, "I need to send Nancy that document."

  • Except this time,

  • Nancy can mark that she's focused.

  • Let's say she drags a slider and says,

  • "I want to be focused for 30 minutes,"

  • so -- bam -- she's focused.

  • Now when John wants to message her,

  • he can get the thought off of his mind --

  • because he has a need, he has this thought,

  • and he needs to dump it out before he forgets.

  • Except this time,

  • it holds the messages so that Nancy can still focus,

  • but John can get the thought off of his mind.

  • But this only works if one last thing is true,

  • which is that Nancy needs to know that if something is truly important,

  • John can still interrupt.

  • But instead of having constant accidental or mindless interruptions,

  • we're now only creating conscious interruptions,

  • So we're doing two things here.

  • We're creating a new choice for both Nancy and John,

  • But there's a second, subtle thing we're doing here, too.

  • And it's that we're changing the question that we're answering.

  • Instead of the goal of chat being:

  • "Let's design it so that it's easy to send a message" --

  • that's the goal of chat,

  • it should be really easy to send a message to someone --

  • we change the goal to something deeper and a human value,

  • which is: "Let's create the highest possible quality communication

  • in a relationship between two people.

  • So we upgraded the goal.

  • Now, do designers actually care about this?

  • Do we want to have conversations about what these deeper human goals are?

  • Well, I'll tell you one story, which is about a year ago,

  • a little over a year ago,

  • I got to help organize a meeting

  • between some of technology's leading designers and Thich Nhat Hanh.

  • Thich Nhat Hanh is an international spokesperson for mindfulness meditation.

  • And it was the most amazing meeting.

  • You have to imagine -- picture a room --

  • on one side of the room, you have a bunch of tech geeks;

  • on the other side of the room,

  • you have a bunch of long brown robes, shaved heads, Buddhist monks.

  • And the questions were about the deepest human values,

  • like what does the future of technology look like

  • when you're designing for the deepest questions

  • and the deepest human values?

  • And our conversation centered on listening more deeply

  • to what those values might be.

  • He joked in our conversation

  • that what if, instead of a spell check,

  • you had a compassion check,

  • meaning, you might highlight a word that might be accidentally abrasive --

  • perceived as abrasive by someone else.

  • So does this kind of conversation happen in the real world,

  • not just in these design meetings?

  • Well, the answer is yes,

  • and one of my favorites is Couchsurfing.

  • If you didn't know, Couchsurfing is a website

  • that matches people who are looking for a place to stay

  • with a free couch, from someone who's trying to offer it.

  • So, great service --

  • what would their design goal be?

  • What are you designing for if you work at Couchsurfing?

  • Well, you would think it's to match guests with hosts.

  • Right?

  • That's a pretty good goal.

  • But that would kind of be like our goal with messaging before,

  • where we're just trying to deliver a message.

  • So what's the deeper, human goal?

  • Well, they set their goal

  • as the need to create lasting, positive experiences and relationships

  • between people who've never met before.

  • And the most amazing thing about this was in 2007,

  • they introduced a way to measure this,

  • which is incredible.

  • I'll tell you how it works.

  • For every design goal you have,

  • you have to have a corresponding measurement

  • to know how you're doing --

  • a way of measuring success.

  • So what they do is,

  • let's say you take two people who meet up,

  • and they take the number of days those two people spent together,

  • and then they estimate how many hours were in those days --

  • how many hours did those two people spend together?

  • And then after they spend those time together,

  • they ask both of them:

  • How positive was your experience?

  • Did you have a good experience with this person that you met?

  • And they subtract from those positive hours

  • the amount of time people spent on the website,

  • because that's a cost to people's lives.

  • Why should we value that as success?

  • And what you were left with

  • is something they refer to as "net orchestrated conviviality,"

  • or, really, just a net "Good Times" created.

  • The net hours that would have never existed, had Couchsurfing not existed.

  • Can you imagine how inspiring it would be to come to work every day

  • and measure your success

  • in the actual net new contribution of hours in people's lives

  • that are positive, that would have never existed

  • if you didn't do what you were about to do at work today?

  • Can you imagine a whole world that worked this way?

  • Can you imagine a social network that --

  • let's say you care about cooking,

  • and it measured its success in terms of cooking nights organized

  • and the cooking articles that you were glad you read,

  • and subtracted from that the articles you weren't glad you read

  • or the time you spent scrolling that you didn't like, ok?

  • Imagine a professional social network

  • that, instead of measuring its success in terms of connections created

  • or messages sent,

  • instead measured its success in terms of the job offers that people got

  • that they were excited to get.

  • And subtracted the amount of time people spent on the website.

  • Or imagine dating services,

  • like maybe Tinder or something,

  • where instead of measuring the number of swipes left and right people did,

  • which is how they measure success today,

  • instead measured the deep, romantic, fulfilling connections people created.

  • Whatever that was for them, by the way.

  • But can you imagine a whole world that worked this way,

  • that was helping you spend your time well?

  • Now to do this you'd also need a new system,

  • because you're probably thinking,

  • today's Internet economy --

  • today's economy in general --

  • is measured in time spent.

  • The more users you have,

  • the more usage you have,

  • the more time people spend,

  • that's how we measure success.

  • But we've solved this problem before.

  • We solved it with organic,

  • when we said we need to value things a different way.

  • We said this is a different kind of food.

  • So we can't compare it just based on price;