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  • I hope you'll understand my English.

  • In the mornings it is terrible, and the afternoon is worst.

  • (Laughter)

  • During many years, I made some speeches starting with this

  • saying: "City is not a problem, it's a solution."

  • And more and more, I'm convinced that

  • it's not only a solution for a country,

  • but it's a solution for the problem of climate change.

  • But we have a very pessimistic approach about the cities.

  • I'm working in cities for almost 40 years,

  • and where every mayor is trying to tell me his city is so big,

  • or the other mayors say, "We don't have financial resources,"

  • I would like to say

  • from the experience I had: every city in the world

  • can be improved in less than three years.

  • There's no matter of scale. It's not a question of scale,

  • it's not a question of financial resources.

  • Every problem in a city has to have its own equation of co-responsibility

  • and also a design.

  • So to start, I want to introduce some characters

  • from a book I made for teenagers.

  • The best example of quality of life is the turtle

  • because the turtle is an example of living and working together.

  • And when you realize that the casque of the turtle

  • looks like an urban tessitura,

  • and can we imagine, if we cut the casque of the turtle, how sad she's going to be?

  • And that's what we're doing in our cities:

  • living here, working here, having leisure here.

  • And most of the people are leaving the city

  • and living outside of the city.

  • So, the other character is Otto, the automobile.

  • He is invited for a party -- he never wants to leave.

  • The chairs are on the tables and still drinking,

  • and he drinks a lot. (Laughter)

  • And he coughs a lot. Very egotistical:

  • he carries only one or two people

  • and he asks always for more infrastructure.

  • Freeways.

  • He's a very demanding person.

  • And on the other hand, Accordion, the friendly bus,

  • he carries 300 people --

  • 275 in Sweden; 300 Brazilians. (Laughter)

  • Speaking about the design: every city has its own design.

  • Curitiba, my city: three million in the metropolitan area,

  • 1,800,000 people in the city itself.

  • Curitiba, Rio: it's like two birds kissing themselves.

  • Oaxaca, San Francisco -- it's very easy:

  • Market Street, Van Ness and the waterfront.

  • And every city has its own design.

  • But to make it happen, sometimes you have to propose a scenario

  • and to propose a design --

  • an idea that everyone, or the large majority,

  • will help you to make it happen.

  • And that's the structure of the city of Curitiba.

  • And it's an example of living and working together.

  • And this is where we have more density;

  • it's where we have more public transport.

  • So, this system started in '74. We started with 25,000 passengers a day,

  • now it's 2,200,000 passengers a day.

  • And it took 25 years until another city ...

  • which is Bogota, and they did a very good job.

  • And now there's 83 cities all over the world that they

  • are doing what they call the BRT of Curitiba.

  • And one thing: it's important not for only your own city;

  • every city, besides its normal problems,

  • they have a very important role

  • in being with the whole humanity.

  • That means mostly two main issues --

  • mobility and sustainability -- are becoming very important for the cities.

  • And this is an articulated bus, double-articulated.

  • And we are very close to my house.

  • You can come when you are in Curitiba and have a coffee there.

  • And that's the evolution of the system.

  • What in the design that made the difference

  • is the boarding tubes:

  • the boarding tube gives to the bus the same performance as a subway.

  • That's why, I'm trying to say,

  • it's like metro-nizing the bus.

  • This is the design of the bus,

  • and you can pay before entering the bus you're boarding.

  • And for handicapped, they can use this as a normal system.

  • What I'm trying to say is

  • the major contribution on carbon emissions are from the cars --

  • more than 50 percent -- so when we depend only on cars, it's ...

  • -- that's why when we're talking about sustainability,

  • it's not enough, green buildings.

  • It's not enough, a new materials.

  • It's not enough, new sources of energy.

  • It's the concept of the city, the design of the city,

  • that's also important, too. And also, how to teach the children.

  • I'll speak on this later on.

  • Our idea of mobility is trying

  • to make the connections between all the systems.

  • We started in '83, proposing for the city of Rio

  • how to connect the subway with the bus.

  • The subway was against, of course.

  • And 23 years after, they called us to develop -- we're developing this idea.

  • And you can understand how different it's going to be,

  • the image of Rio with the system --

  • one-minute frequency.

  • And it's not Shanghai,

  • it's not being colored during the day, only at night

  • it will look this way.

  • And before you say it's a Norman Foster design,

  • we designed this in '83.

  • And this is the model,

  • how it's going to work. So, it's the same system;

  • the vehicle is different. And that's the model.

  • What I'm trying to say is, I'm not trying

  • to prove which system of transport is better.

  • I'm trying to say we have to combine

  • all the systems, and with one condition:

  • never -- if you have a subway, if you have surface systems,

  • if you have any kind of system --

  • never compete in the same space.

  • And coming back to the car, I always used to say

  • that the car is like your mother-in-law:

  • you have to have good relationship with her,

  • but she cannot command your life.

  • So, when the only woman in your life is your mother-in-law,

  • you have a problem. (Laughter)

  • So, all the ideas about how to transform through design --

  • old quarries and open universities and botanic garden --

  • all of it's related to how we teach the children.

  • And the children, we teach during six months how to separate their garbage.

  • And after, the children teach their parents.

  • And now we have 70 percent --

  • since 20 years, it's the highest rate of separation of garbage in the world.

  • Seven zero.

  • (Applause)

  • So teach the children.

  • I would like to say, if we want to have a sustainable world

  • we have to work with everything what's said,

  • but don't forget the cities and the children.

  • I'm working in a museum and also a multi-use city,

  • because you cannot have empty places during 18 hours a day.

  • You should have always

  • a structure of living and working together.

  • Try to understand the sectors in the city

  • that could play different roles during the 24 hours.

  • Another issue is, a city's like our family portrait.

  • We don't rip our family portrait,

  • even if we don't like the nose of our uncle,

  • because this portrait is you.

  • And these are the references that we have in any city.

  • This is the main pedestrian mall;

  • we did it in 72 hours. Yes, you have to be fast.

  • And these are the references from our ethnic contribution.

  • This is the Italian portal,

  • the Ukrainian park, the Polish park, the Japanese square, the German park.

  • All of a sudden, the Soviet Union, they split.

  • And since we have people from

  • Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, [unclear],

  • we have to stop the program.

  • (Laughter)

  • Don't forget: creativity starts when you cut a zero from your budget.

  • If you cut two zeros, it's much better.

  • And this is the Wire Opera theater. We did it in two months.

  • Parks -- old quarries that they were transformed into parks.

  • Quarries once made the nature, and

  • sometimes we took this and we transformed.

  • And every part can be transformed;

  • every frog can be transformed in a prince.

  • So, in a city, you have to work fast.

  • Planning takes time. And I'm proposing urban acupuncture.

  • That means me, with some focal ideas to help the normal process of planning.

  • And this is an acupuncture note --

  • or I.M. Pei's. Some small ones

  • can make the city better.

  • The smallest park in New York, the most beautiful:

  • 32 meters.

  • So, I want just to end saying

  • that you can always propose new materials -- new sustainable materials --

  • but keep in mind that we have to work fast

  • to the end, because we don't have the whole time to plan.

  • And I think creativity, innovation is starting.

  • And we cannot have all the answers.

  • So when you start --

  • and we cannot be so prepotent on having all the answers --

  • it's important starting and having the contribution from people,

  • and they could teach you

  • if you're not in the right track.

  • At the end, I would like if you can help me to sing the sustainable song.

  • OK?

  • Please, allow me just two minutes.

  • You're going to make the music and the rhythm.

  • Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! ♫

  • Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! ♫

  • It's possible! It's possible! You can do it! You can do it! ♫

  • Use less your car! Make this decision! ♫

  • Avoid carbon emission! It's possible! It's possible! ♫

  • You can do it! You can do it! ♫

  • Live closer to work! ♫

  • Work closer to home! Save energy in your home! ♫

  • It's possible! It's possible! You can do it! ♫

  • You can do it! Separate your garbage! ♫

  • Organic, schmorganic! Save more! Waste less! It's possible! ♫

  • You can do it! Please, do it now! ♫

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I hope you'll understand my English.

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A2 TED design bus turtle subway teach

【TED】Jaime Lerner: Sing a song of sustainable cities

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    Max Lin posted on 2016/07/03
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