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  • One of the main uses of the principles of natural language processing is what is called

  • chat botorchatter bot”. Actually the termchatterBotwas originally coined

  • by Michael Mauldin, the creator of this Verbot, Julia, in 1994 to describe these conversational

  • programs. A chatter bot is a computer program designed

  • to simulate a conversation with human users. The primary aim is to kind of fool the user

  • into thinking that he actually talks with a human. This is what we have already referred

  • toTuring test”. This new criterion of intelligence soon became

  • a challenge to several specialists, that created all kind of chat bots until today.

  • The first chat bot was Eliza and she was built by Joseph Weizebaum. She was released to the

  • public in 1966 and she played the role of a psychotherapist. Eliza would simply rearrange

  • a submitted statement or question, into a new question to ask the person talking to

  • her. ELIZA's key method of operation, which is now used by all chat bots, involves the

  • recognition of key words or phrases in the input that are previously categorized to positive

  • or negative structures. That way she is creating an illusion of perfect understanding in most

  • cases. At her time, people would actually use Eliza to confide in.

  • This is a conversation we made with Eliza, and as you can see, you can ask her something

  • and answers you back, most of the times with a question. If you repeat yourself, she will

  • probably answer you with the same way. So it is clear that she matches words in order

  • to answer.

  • Parry was next, designed by Kenneth Colby in 1971. His purpose was to reflect the mind

  • of a seriously paranoid mental patient. To achieve that, a database would be created

  • with positive or negative values to certain words or phrases to act as triggers for various

  • emotions.

  • Both Parry and Eliza were successful in playing their roles since professional psychologists

  • were having difficulty to find out that they were actually talking with a software.

  • These chatbots are not self learning A.I. in any way, because their creators spent a

  • lot of time, constructing a fully edited database with words and meanings. This method is used

  • until now, but with some differences. Now, they are also using the botsinput and

  • output in order to analyze that and find out what is commonly used and what isn’t.

  • So moving on in our timeline, we find Jabberwacky, a kind of different chat bot which claims

  • that it can learn. It was created in 1988 by Rollo Carpentor and brought online in 1997.

  • Thegeneral AIof Jabberwacky stores everything everyone has ever said, and finds

  • the most appropriate thing to say, using contextual pattern matching techniques. In its website

  • claims that it can be taught slang English, word games, jokes etc, and that everyone can

  • contributes to its learning. They are comparing Jabberwacky with a conversational Wikipedia.

  • And as you can see, we have made a conversation with Jabberwacky as well.

  • One of the most famous chat bots is A.L.I.C.E.. She was created by Dr. Richard Wallance in

  • 1995 using his own A.I.M.L. markup language. ALICE has the structure as Eliza and Parry

  • when it comes to creation. They use human edited database for their responses. But Alice

  • was not created for a purpose, but to demonstrate a woman that you can make a conversation with.

  • This is a huge project since ALICE would have to response to all kind of questions and subjects.

  • But she is considered a strong competitor. There is a long list of chatter bots that

  • can be used in different ways and industries. These days, a lot of companies all over the

  • world, choose to use chat bots in order to guide their websitesusers, or answer their

  • clientsquestions. There are chat bots that will answer questions

  • about sports, animals and electronics. Others can give you ideas about fashion or cooking.

  • There are Chat bots that have been used by several governments and financial purposes.

  • And yes, there are erotic chat bots that can answer to all sort of questions, of course

  • you have to be an adult! All of these chat bots work for several organizations in order

  • to make things easier with information and to guide clients or users through services.

  • They exist through the internet and maybe you have someday used one, and haven’t noticed.

  • Chat bots are often divided by their appearance, perception and expressions. So there are faceless

  • chat bots, robots, avatars and animated avatars and several search boxes. Some can recognize

  • text, others can recognize speech and respond with speech as these examples, and others

  • can recognize gestures and make facial expressions. For example this Polish chat bot, where we

  • asked her if she knows English and she nodded her head, saying no.

  • Some chat bots can be used for one application only and they are created for one purpose.

  • Maybe e-learning, maybe gaming, navigation through a website, answering questions for

  • a shop’s products or just entertainment. There are actually some amazing chat bots

  • that offer a lot of different features to their users and a lot of help through their

  • everyday life. One of these complex and exciting application

  • is Siri (which stands for Speech Interpretation and Recognition Interface) which was founded

  • in 2007 by Dag Kittlaus, Adam Cheyer, Tom Gruber and Norman Winarsky. Siri is an intelligent

  • personal assistant and also a knowledge navigator which works as an application for a certain

  • mobile operating system. Siri uses natural language user interface, to understand the

  • commands of the user. Combining other application that the mobile offers and the amazing understanding

  • of natural language, she is able to answer questions, make recommendations and perform

  • actions by delegating requests to a set of web services.

  • Now, let’s have some fun with the famous character Raj, fromThe Bing Bang Theory

  • series, using Siri in a humorous way.

  • Despite the

  • greatness of chat bots and this kind of applications, the expanding of technology, inspires some

  • minds in order to use it maliciously. Those chat bots are frequently used to fill chat

  • rooms with spam and advertising, or to make people reveal personal information such as

  • bank account numbers and passwords. So there must be a great caution when using one and

  • be careful if something is suspicious when we talk to someone by instant messaging.

  • So, maybe chat bots seem to be just luxury since, they perform commands that we could

  • perform on our own and also they may not respond always as appropriate as a person would do.

  • We must not forget though, that their main purpose of creation is to serve clients and

  • users as well as inform them and help them throughout their everyday tasks.

  • So, maybe chat bots are not fully included in our daily life yet, but who knows? Maybe

  • one day we would not be able to resist the help of a chat bot or should we say a new friend?

One of the main uses of the principles of natural language processing is what is called

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A2 chat eliza natural language siri parry created

Natural Language Processing and Chat Bots PART B

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    shin posted on 2016/03/10
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