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  • Hey. Hope you had a great weekend.

  • Weve got a lot lined up for you today on CNN STUDENT NEWS,

  • starting with the report on Tropical Cyclone Winston.

  • It was the most powerful storm ever recorded in the southern hemisphere.

  • It made landfall in the Pacific island country of Fiji on Saturday.

  • Winston killed at least 10 people when it roared through. Trees are down. Power is out.

  • All of Fiji schools are closed this week.

  • A state of emergency will be in effect for a month.

  • Now, the challenge is prioritizing clean up efforts.

  • Officials are most concerned about some of Fiji’s smaller villages.

  • They didn’t have the infrastructure to withstand the storm’s 184-mile-per-hour winds.

  • Winston was the equivalent of a category 5 hurricane.

  • As for the difference between that and a cyclone, it’s just geography.

  • A tropical cyclone is an area of low pressure that forms in the tropical regions of the world.

  • Cyclones are actually very important, even though, of course, they can be deadly.

  • They help essentially balance out the temperature across the globe.

  • They are an equalizer, so they take the heat energy from the tropics

  • and they translate that where we need it into the colder climates.

  • The generic term for it is a tropical cyclone.

  • That can refer to any cyclone that has a closed center of circulation,

  • anywhere in the world, like in the Atlantic,

  • when they get strong enough, to a certain wind speed, we call them hurricanes.

  • But if youre in the western Pacific, a hurricane is called a typhoon.

  • There’s no difference between a hurricane and a typhoon except in the name.

  • Theyre both tropical cyclones.

  • Up next, a struggle of Mumbai.

  • It’s one of the most populated cities of the world’s second most populated country, India.

  • It’s home to tens of millions and some massive landfills.

  • The government says that things are improving around the slums of Deonar.

  • The roads are better, parks and schools have been built, many people who lived there disagrees,

  • saying the government doesn’t listen to the poor.

  • Few would deny though that the garbage problem is immense.

  • Always busy, always bustling.

  • Mumbai is a city on the move -- home to factories, industry, 21 million peple and a lot of rubbish.

  • It generates 10,000 metric tons of waste a day.

  • The problem is, there’s no real way to get rid of it.

  • Much of it ends up here, at the Deonar dumping ground, on the edge of the city.

  • There’s so much garbage over here, it’s miserly bad

  • and to be honest, it’s quite hard to breathe.

  • And if you look at this hill behind me, this isn’t actually a hill.

  • It’s 90 years of accumulated garbage.

  • From ground level, it’s as high as a 10-story building.

  • This was wetland swamp. There were beautiful mangrove and --

  • This area was once green?

  • Absolutely, absolutely, yes.

  • Now, activists say it’s a national embarrassment and a hazard.

  • Part of the dump recently got fire,

  • a fire so big with so much smoke, it was visible from space.

  • We asked the head of the local city council what her plans for the dumping ground are.

  • She said theyve ramped up a citywide cleanliness campaign

  • and started diverting some of the waste to another area, but the ultimate goal?

  • To scientifically cover the dump.

  • She admits that could take a while. As India continues to project itself as a growing super power,

  • dumps like this are eyesores that critics say contradict its ambitious message.

  • This is a zebra. There are hundreds of thousands of them in the world.

  • But one particular type called the Grevy’s zebra has seen a dramatic population drop in recent decades.

  • Theyre hunted by lions, leopards, cheetahs and hyenas.

  • But the main reason theyre disappearing may be humans.

  • Were going on safari to their stumping ground in Kenya to explore why.

  • Were on a very different sort of hunt.

  • The animals we are stalking are beautiful but shy and skittish.

  • The Grevy’s zebra population is less than a fifth of what it was 30 years ago.

  • Today, an estimated 2,000 are left in Kenya but no one knows for sure.

  • Grevy’s, Grevy’s.

  • Often hunted for their skins, the only shots this group will take are the photo kind

  • and for an important cause.

  • I got them. Go that way, go that way.

  • The aim for these Grevy’s hunters is to get a good still photograph of the animal’s right flank.

  • Were going to use this picture to do an analysis of the stripe patterns.

  • Theyre naturally barcoded, just like you get in the grocery store and everyone is unique.

  • And so, we will be able to, with our hot spot software,

  • identify where the stripes touched each other.

  • The software analyzes and compares the zebra’s natural barcode.

  • It records other data, too, such as where and when the picture was taken.

  • All in all, around a hundred thousand pictures.

  • It’s going to be amazing. It’s magic. It’s historic.

  • It will take a couple of weeks for scientists in the U.S. to review the data found in the Grevy’s count,

  • then the hope is that Kenya and the world will know how many of these majestic beasts remain,

  • and just how worried we should be about their disappearance.

  • In the U.S., the next presidential nominating contest for Republicans is Tuesday in Nevada.

  • The next one for Democrats is Saturday in South Carolina.

  • Over the weekend, those same two states held votes for the opposite parties.

  • In the Nevada Democratic caucuses, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton won,

  • with just over 52 percent of the vote.

  • Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders came in a close second with just over 47 percent.

  • In the South Carolina Republican primaries,

  • businessman Donald Trump won with more than 32 percent of the vote,

  • Florida Senator Marco Rubio with second with 22.5 percent,

  • and Texas Senator Ted Cruz was just behind him with 22.3 percent.

  • After placing fourth, former Florida Governor Jeb Bush has suspended his campaign.

  • He’d struggle for months to make progress in the polls.

  • So, now, there are five candidates seeking the Republican nomination.

  • There are two candidates seeking the Democratic one.

  • And coincidentally, Nevada and South Carolina

  • just happened to be the homes of today’s schools on the "Roll Call".

  • Rancho High School is in the Battle Born States.

  • The Rams are with us. Theyre watching from Las Vegas.

  • Newberry is a city in the Palmetto State.

  • From there, weve got the Tigers of Newberry Middle School.

  • And from Central America, we welcome our viewers at Academia Britanica Cuscatleca.

  • Great to see you in La Libertad, El Salvador.

  • With the help of CNN’s Dr. Sanjay Gupta, weve been looking inside the human brain lately,

  • from how it’s involved in multitasking, to how it’s stimulated by music.

  • And whether you are soft or hard headed or soft or hard-hearted,

  • it’s possible youll fall in love at some point.

  • What does science tell us about the head-heart connection?

  • We call it falling in love, as if we have no control over how we topple.

  • That rush of emotion we connect to our heart actually begins here in our brain.

  • It starts with a crush, a first attraction which triggers a dopamine pathway deep

  • in the middle of the brain.

  • Dopamine is known as that feel good neurotransmitter.

  • But it also tells us to pay attention and to speak for rewards.

  • And that finds us for the next step, infatuation.

  • Because the brain is also telling your adrenal gland to release chemicals

  • like adrenaline and norepinephrine, it’s no wonder that we often start to tremble,

  • loss our appetite, or gets sweaty palms, just thinking about our sweetheart.

  • By now, the brain’s reward system is fully activated,

  • flooding your gray matter with more and more dopamine, feeding your high.

  • Have you ever wondered why the object of your affection seems to do no wrong?

  • At least at first?

  • Well, it’s because the brain on love deactivates the amygdala,

  • which controls fear, deactivates the mid temporal cortex,

  • which manages negative emotions.

  • It even deactivates your frontal lobe, which is used in judgment right here.

  • Which moves us along to the next level of our brain on love, attachment.

  • The brain seals the deal by releasing oxytocin, often called the love hormone.

  • It’s a neuropeptide produce here in the hypothalamus,

  • and is secreted by the pituitary gland during times of intimacy like hugging and kissing.

  • Studies show oxytocin strengthens social bonds in mammals

  • and intimate activities that trigger its release helps couples create strong bonds.

  • A typical giant panda has three speeds, eat, sleep and rest.

  • I guess that’s more like two and a half.

  • But this panda has one more, romp in the snow.

  • When Da Mao woke up to find his home at the Toronto Zoo frosted over,

  • he did what any seven-year-old would do, he went out to play.

  • He didn’t even make it all the way back up the hill again

  • before he turned and rolled and took another tumble. .

  • It’s great footage of a spritely mammal

  • You could say we were bamboozled by it,

  • a bear frolicking with a reckless a-pandon.

  • It’s an animal that’s black and white and happy all over

  • and a scene of sheer panda-snow-mium.

  • I’m Carl Azuz and weve spanda breath of news. Come on back Tuesday.

Hey. Hope you had a great weekend.

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February 22, 2016 - CNN Student News with subtitle

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