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  • Hey. Hope you had a great weekend and thank you for taking 10 minutes to get up to speed

  • on current events. I`m Carl Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • First up, a papal trip across the sea. Pope Francis travelled from the Vatican to the

  • Caribbean nation of Cuba over the weekend. This is a significant visit. Pope Francis

  • is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. It`s the largest denomination of the world`s

  • largest religion, Christianity.

  • And for decades, Cuba`s government has been officially atheist. It`s had a number of restrictions

  • on religion.

  • The pope said that the Catholic Church was once an important part of Cuban history and

  • he called for Cuba`s government to give people the freedom, the means and the space to practice

  • their faith. He also called on Cuba to open itself to the world.

  • The pope`s visit included a mass with tens of thousands of people yesterday and a private

  • meeting with Cuba`s former leader Fidel Castro. The pontiff plans to spend today travelling

  • through Cuba and then fly to the U.S. capital tomorrow.

  • Like Cuba, China is a communist country. And like Cuba, China`s had a history of tensions

  • with the U.S.

  • Its leader, Xi Jinping, is visiting America this week. It will be his first trip here

  • as Chinese president, though he has been in the U.S. before. President Xi is scheduled

  • to speak to business leaders and international diplomats in Seattle, Washington, tomorrow.

  • Later in the week, he`ll be in Washington, D.C., for meetings with President Obama. That

  • includes a state dinner at the White House, a former meal and high order for U.S. presidential

  • guests. President Xi leads a country that`s both a U.S. ally and a rival.

  • Are the U.S. and China friends or enemies? Even some of the stodgiest diplomats will,

  • for lack of a better term, use the word "frenemies" because the fact is, the truth is somewhere

  • in between.

  • Let`s talk about what makes the two countries friends. And the first is economic. The U.S.

  • is China`s number one trading partner. China is the U.S.`s number two, after only Canada.

  • And just as a matter of comparison, the U.S. has more than 500 times the amount of trade

  • in dollar terms with China as it had with the USSR.

  • But there are other shared interests. One is counterterrorism. Another is non-proliferation.

  • China was also a part of the Iran nuclear negotiations.

  • A big one is climate change. And when I talk to even some of the toughest diplomats on

  • both sides, they all agree on one thing. It`s not in either country`s interests to go to

  • war with the other.

  • But China and the U.S. have real and troubling and growing differences. One of them is cyber

  • attack. For years, U.S. companies have accused China of stealing trade secrets to the loss

  • of tens of billions of dollars and the U.S. government has accused China of attacking

  • the U.S. military and a whole host of U.S. institutions.

  • The U.S. and China also have severe differences over territory. The U.S. opposes China`s manufacture

  • in effect of manmade islands hundreds of miles off its coast, and other differences as well,

  • including islands that both China and Japan claimed.

  • At the same time, the U.S. is very concerned about the expansion of China`s military and

  • the expansion of where China`s military is operating. We saw that when Chinese warships

  • turned up off the coast of Alaska, within U.S. territorial waters, at the same time

  • that President Obama was on the ground here.

  • Bigger picture, the U.S. and Chinese systems are diametrically opposed. The U.S. is a democracy

  • based on the rule of law. China is an authoritarian state where the law is essentially the Chinese

  • communist party.

  • So, the challenge, and Chinese and U.S. diplomats talk about this all the time, is how to keep

  • the peace between a rising power, China, and an existing power, the U.S. Historically,

  • that`s always been tough.

  • Today, China talks a lot about a new kind of superpower relationships. The U.S. talks

  • about its pivot to Asia. But the fact is, even the smartest diplomats on both sides

  • haven`t figured out a solution to this problem, and it is in all of our interests that they

  • do.

  • The one U.S. state we haven`t mentioned yet on our Roll Call this year is Connecticut.

  • And it`s Wintergreen Interdistrict Magnet School that leads things off. Hello to all

  • of our viewers in Hamden and thank you for watching.

  • One city we`ve never announced in Mississippi is Picayune and it`s the Maroon Tide of Picayune

  • Memorial High School that`s on today`s roll.

  • And one country we`ve announced before is United Arab Emirates. From Abu Dhabi, welcome

  • to International School of Choueifat.

  • Pre-game medical assessments of players, examination of those who take hard hits during the game,

  • moving the kickoff spot forward five yards -- these are some of the steps the National

  • Football League says it has already taken to make the game safer.

  • A recent study suggests measures like that and perhaps more are needed. It found that

  • 87 out of 91 former NFL players had CTE.

  • Well, first of all, CTE, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a brain disease. It`s a

  • progressive brain disease for which we have no known treatment, no cure. And frankly,

  • it`s not something that we even knew about until seven or eight years ago. Research in

  • this really began about in 2008. I had a chance to visit the lab in 2011 where the science

  • is taking place where they were examining the brains of former NFL players and other

  • people as well.

  • Now, this most recent study says 96 percent of people whose brains were examined had evidence

  • of the CTE. Now, I want to make something clear here. These are people who probably

  • during their lives worried that something was wrong and donated and had their brains

  • donated to science after they died. So, there was already some concern about it.

  • There`s no way to suggest that 96 percent of all NFL players will develop CTE, but there

  • is obviously a lot of science here. And when you look at the brains of these people, what

  • they found were these protein deposits that were very similar again to what you might

  • see with Alzheimer`s disease.

  • In life, these people often had anger issues, depression, and memory loss. Those are three

  • that sort of constellation of symptoms that people often develop and it was often younger

  • players whose brains are still developing that may have been most at risk.

  • CTE is not limited to athletes. Anyone with repeated head trauma and concussions could

  • develop it. As far as football goes, researchers don`t know why some players develop CTE and

  • others don`t. But engineers are joining the effort to make the game safer.

  • A high tech tackling dummy that costs around $3,500 could help.

  • We`ve clocked 5-second 40-yard dash, which is pretty quick for a player.

  • It makes some quick cuts, too. It`s pretty difficult to tackle.

  • We can turn it like a car. We can rotate it in place. This is actually the first tackling

  • dummy at any practice of this sort that can actually move and replicate player motion.

  • You can take one player out of any tackling at practice and you already cut your injury

  • risks by half because that player isn`t standing there taking a hit.

  • Nice!

  • How realistic is it in terms of the real deal?

  • We talk to my players, it`s identical. There are some subtleties, change of speed and so

  • forth that is -- makes it like you`re tackling something to the field, as close as you can

  • get short of tackling a real person.

  • Have you ever had a concussion yourself?

  • I have. I have one in my sophomore year in high school. It was pretty scary. You know,

  • you blacked out for a couple of seconds.

  • When I look at that hit after the game, my explanation of that was like it`s a freight

  • train hitting the Volkswagen.

  • You know, my thing was, you know, not remembering. You know, I`ve been taking my daughters to

  • practice for years and all of a sudden, I forgot how to get there. I have to ask my

  • wife, how do you get there?

  • If you have multiple head injuries, you`re at a higher risk for having longer term consequences.

  • Do you see this device being a real tool in preventing concussion.

  • Yes, I do. I really do.

  • Literally you take the equation out 50 percent of the problem when two guys collide, we remove

  • one of them. So we can practice, our technique is improving because we`re doing it more frequently,

  • but we`re not jeopardizing ourselves or the other players.

  • We`ve had huge players and teams contact us, wanting to know when they can get their hands

  • on one. At this point, all we`re trying to say is we`re developing it and we`ll get them

  • to you as soon as we can.

  • So teams from across the country are contacting you?

  • Across the world.

  • Coaches want to protect their players. Players want to protect themselves. And more importantly,

  • parents want to protect their young players.

  • Before we go, we`re baking up something delicious and huge. A single apple pie that could serve

  • 1,000 people. How? Well, I`ll tell you.

  • It`s seven feet long. It takes six hours to assemble and about 17 hours to bake. The prodigious

  • pie packs 400 pounds of filling on top of 200 pounds of dough.

  • So, it might taste light and flaky, but it ain`t. It`s a traditional part of an apple

  • festival in Indiana, though it would be a great addition to Pi Day in March. We could

  • them 3.14 reasons for that.

  • The high pie (ph) pieces together another e-pie-sode of our show, allowing us to say

  • good-pie before we say goodbye. It`s not all dough, if you`re hungry for more puns and

  • Roll Call tips, and you`re already on Instagram, pie us a visit at Instagram.com/CNNStudentNews.

Hey. Hope you had a great weekend and thank you for taking 10 minutes to get up to speed

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CNN Student News September 21, 2015

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