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  • I went to the beach

  • So, what?

  • People go to the beach all the time

  • Oh my goodness!

  • Although it was raining, I went to the beach

  • Okay, now that is surprising

  • Not many people go to the beach when it's raining

  • Let's take a minute to talk about the meaning of this word...

  • 'Although'

  • In this sentence we have two facts

  • The first one is, 'I went to the beach'

  • Nothing surprising here

  • and here is the second fact

  • It was raining

  • When you put them together

  • The second fact makes the first fact seem surprising

  • Although is used to show this surprising relationship

  • between the two facts

  • Would you like to see a couple more examples?

  • Good!

  • I don't want to be a firefighter, although I could save kittens

  • Come and get it

  • Here I come

  • You've got to be kidding me

  • Although she was hungry, Lucy didn't eat

  • Now let's talk about the grammar for how to use 'although'

  • 'Although' is a subordinating conjunction

  • and it is followed by a clause

  • Remember, a clause is a group of words

  • that has at least a subject and a verb

  • Though it may also have objects, a complement, and some adverbials

  • Together these make a subordinate clause

  • It is called a subordinate clause because it can not make a sentence on its own

  • If someone said, 'although she was hungry...'

  • What are you talking about? Although she was hungry, what?

  • and stopped there

  • The listener would be waiting for more information

  • The idea wouldn't feel complete

  • that is why the subordinate clause must be followed by another

  • This one is the main clause

  • Unlike the subordinate clause

  • The main clause does express a complete idea

  • and can stand on its own

  • One more thing...

  • It is also possible to switch the order of the clauses

  • You could also say, 'Lucy didn't eat, although she was hungry'

  • All right

  • Now I'd like to show you

  • Some more subordinating conjunctions

  • that show a contrast of surprising fact

  • These words have the SAME meaning

  • and the SAME grammar as 'although'

  • So, we could say...

  • Though she was hungry, she didn't eat

  • Or, in spite of the fact that she was hungry, she didn't eat

  • Or,...

  • Even though she was hungry, she didn't eat

  • Now you know four subordinating conjunctions

  • that you can use to show a contrast of surprising facts

  • we have...

  • 'In spite of the fact that'

  • 'Though'

  • 'Although' and 'even though'

  • All right, it's confesion time

  • I told you they were the same

  • but I lied

  • Sorry

  • There is a small difference

  • in the degree of formality of these words

  • In spite of the fact that is the most formal

  • and 'even though' is the least formal

  • Take a look at these examples

  • In spite of the fact that the bolivarian revolution

  • doesn't maintain law and order in the streets

  • Maduro remains in power

  • Although it cost $6 million, Abdullah bought the camel

  • Though he would lose much

  • Snowden exposed how the American government

  • invades people's privacy in the name of security

  • Even though Min Ji is already very beautiful

  • She wants to get plastic surgery

  • All right, that's it for subordinate conjunctions

  • Now let's take a look at 'despite' and 'in spite of'

  • These words are also used to show a contrast of surprising fact

  • Phew, we've been working a lot, let's go back to the beach

  • despite it was raining

  • we had a lot of fun

  • Oh, good for you

  • Now, if we think about this sentence from the point of view of the meaning

  • it's perfectly correct

  • we're still showing a contrast

  • However, from a grammatical point of view

  • This sentence is wrong

  • You can't use a clause after despite

  • We've seen that this sentence is wrong

  • despite can't be followed by a clause

  • Why? You might be asking yourself

  • Well,...

  • that is because 'despite' is a preposition

  • and after a preposition you need to use a noun

  • So, we could say...

  • Despite the rain, I went to the beach

  • Or, in spite of the rain...

  • I went to the beach

  • 'Despite'

  • and 'in spite of'

  • are both prepositions

  • They have the same meaning

  • and the same grammar

  • The first part of this sentence

  • 'despite the rain'

  • is called a prepositional phrase

  • It is also possible to put the prepositional phrase

  • at the end of the sentence

  • You could say

  • I went to the beach despite the rain

  • but notice the difference

  • When the prepositional phrase is at the beginning of the sentence

  • You must put a comma after it

  • Notice how, we don't need a comma

  • when the prepositional phrase is at the end of the sentence

  • Got it? Good!

  • Here's a few examples for you

  • She said no in spite of his romantic proposal

  • In spite of being the youngest employee, she got the promotion

  • In spite of his bad eye-sight,

  • Kenneth was able to read the note

  • I've just told you that a preposition is followed by a noun

  • Now, if you'll indulge me

  • I'd like to take a minute to tell you all about the gerund clause

  • a gerund clause, like any other kind of clause,

  • has a subject

  • There are two things you need to know about subjects in gerund clauses

  • First of all,...

  • They are usually optional

  • and, as a matter of fact

  • they're not usually used

  • Second of all...

  • must be a possessive adjective

  • or a possessive noun

  • the possessive adjectives are...

  • my...your...

  • his...her...

  • its...our...

  • and their

  • in place of the verb

  • you need to use a gerund

  • hence the name, gerund clause

  • if you want to make it negative

  • simply put a 'not' in front of the gerund

  • like a tensed clause, a gerund clause can have objects

  • a complement

  • and even some adverbials

  • in the examples I'm about to show you

  • I will only use adverbials of time

  • for example, we could make a gerund clause

  • my...

  • not...

  • giving...

  • her...

  • the letter...

  • last week...

  • as in...

  • despite my not giving her the letter last week,

  • she heard the news, oh boy!

  • here's another

  • her...

  • offering...

  • them...

  • a hand...

  • for a couple of hours...

  • as in...

  • in spite of her offering them a hand for a couple of hours,

  • they decided to do it without her.

  • and here's another example

  • their...

  • having left...

  • early...

  • as in...

  • despite their having left early,...

  • they arrived late

  • Finally, here's an example with a possessive noun

  • John's...

  • not...

  • travelling...

  • anymore...

  • as in...

  • in spite of John's not travelling anymore,

  • he has a really nice tan

  • Now let me show you

  • how we would transform a subordinate clause

  • into a gerund clause

  • first, take the subordinate conjunction

  • and change it into a preposition

  • then change the subject into a possessive adjective

  • then change the verb phrase into a gerund

  • this is a tricky one

  • in this sentence we have the modal verb 'could'

  • 'being able to' is the gerund form of 'could'

  • so use being able to with the base form of the verb

  • and there is no need to change the object

  • Voila!

  • we have, 'despite my being able to save kittens'

  • this is a prepositional phrase

  • that has a gerund clause

  • subordinate to the preposition

  • All right, would you like to see the whole sentence?

  • here it is

  • Despite my being able to save kittens,

  • I don't want to be a firefighter

  • okay, here's one more example

  • 'although' becomes 'despite'

  • 'it' becomes the possessive adjective 'its'

  • 'cost' becomes the gerund 'costing'

  • and again, the object remains the same

  • and we get the sentence

  • Despite its costing $6 million dollars,

  • Abdullah bout the camel

  • All right, here's a few more examples for you

  • In spite of the ostrich's burying its head in the sand,

  • its problems did not disappear

  • he didn't catch any fish despite having fished all day

  • in spite of his being a creepy little puppet

  • Billy is quite popular

  • or maybe its because of his creepiness

  • all right, now it's time for your first exercise

  • what you need to do is match the subordinate clause

  • to its corresponding main clause

  • to make a complete sentence

  • The answers will be available after the timer finishes counting down

  • and here are the answers

  • one goes with e

  • despite the fact that the sun was shining, the snow didn't melt

  • two matches up with d

  • despite all his faults, she still loves him

  • three with b

  • although she has many problems, she always looks happy

  • four, c

  • despite the heavy traffic, we arrived on time

  • Finally, five...d

  • although the house is small, it is well designed

  • okay, onto the next exercise

  • in this exercise, you must complete the sentence

  • with either a subordinate conjunction

  • or a preposition

  • pay attention to whether the blank space is followed by a noun

  • a gerund phrase or a clause

  • again

  • the answers will appear after the timer has finished counting down

  • and now the answers

  • one

  • I like her, even though she annoying at times

  • two...

  • although the sun was shining, it wasn't very warm

  • three

  • in spite of her heart trouble,

  • she went on the roller coaster

  • four, she enjoyed the concert despite having a headache

  • and finally number five

  • we enjoyed the movie, even though the weather was bad

  • if you used a different subordinating conjunction or preposition from me

  • that's okay, it's still correct

  • remember, they are interchangeable

  • and now, onto the final exercise

  • what you have to do here is change the subordinate clause

  • into a gerund clause

  • and then rewrite the sentence with a prepositional phrase of contrast

  • For example, if I said, "I thought he was wrong,....

  • ...although I didn't say anything at the time."

  • you would have to change it to...