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  • (Clicking)

  • I was born with bilateral retinoblastoma,

  • retinal cancer.

  • My right eye was removed

  • at seven months of age.

  • I was 13 months when they removed my left eye.

  • The first thing I did upon awakening from that last surgery

  • was to climb out of my crib

  • and begin wandering around the intensive care nursery,

  • probably looking for the one who did this to me.

  • (Laughter)

  • Evidently, wandering around the nursery

  • was not a problem for me without eyes.

  • The problem was getting caught.

  • It's impressions about blindness

  • that are far more threatening

  • to blind people than the blindness itself.

  • Think for a moment about your own impressions of blindness.

  • Think about your reactions when I first came onto the stage,

  • or the prospect of your own blindness,

  • or a loved one going blind.

  • The terror is incomprehensible to most of us,

  • because blindness

  • is thought to epitomize ignorance and unawareness,

  • hapless exposure to the ravages of the dark unknown.

  • How poetic.

  • Fortunately for me, my parents were not poetic.

  • They were pragmatic.

  • They understood that ignorance and fear were but matters of the mind,

  • and the mind is adaptable.

  • They believed that I should grow up

  • to enjoy the same freedoms and responsibilities as everyone else.

  • In their own words, I would move out --

  • which I did when I was 18 --

  • I will pay taxes --

  • thanks -- (Laughter) --

  • and they knew the difference between love and fear.

  • Fear immobilizes us in the face of challenge.

  • They knew that blindness would pose a significant challenge.

  • I was not raised with fear.

  • They put my freedom first before all else,

  • because that is what love does.

  • Now, moving forward, how do I manage today?

  • The world is a much larger nursery.

  • Fortunately, I have my trusty long cane,

  • longer than the canes used by most blind people.

  • I call it my freedom staff.

  • It will keep me, for example,

  • from making an undignified departure from the stage. (Laughter)

  • I do see that cliff edge.

  • They warned us earlier that every imaginable mishap

  • has occurred to speakers up here on the stage.

  • I don't care to set a new precedent.

  • But beyond that,

  • many of you may have heard me clicking as I came onto the stage --

  • (Clicking) --

  • with my tongue.

  • Those are flashes of sound

  • that go out and reflect from surfaces all around me,

  • just like a bat's sonar,

  • and return to me with patterns, with pieces of information,

  • much as light does for you.

  • And my brain, thanks to my parents,

  • has been activated to form images in my visual cortex,

  • which we now call the imaging system,

  • from those patterns of information, much as your brain does.

  • I call this process flash sonar.

  • It is how I have learned to see through my blindness,

  • to navigate my journey

  • through the dark unknowns of my own challenges,

  • which has earned me the moniker

  • "the remarkable Batman."

  • Now, Batman I will accept.

  • Bats are cool. Batman is cool.

  • But I was not raised to think of myself as in any way remarkable.

  • I have always regarded myself much like anyone else

  • who navigates the dark unknowns of their own challenges.

  • Is that so remarkable?

  • I do not use my eyes, I use my brain.

  • Now, someone, somewhere,

  • must think that's remarkable, or I wouldn't be up here,

  • but let's consider this for a moment.

  • Everyone out there

  • who faces or who has ever faced a challenge,

  • raise your hands.

  • Whoosh. Okay.

  • Lots of hands going up, a moment, let me do a head count.

  • (Clicking)

  • This will take a while. (Clicking) (Laughter)

  • Okay, lots of hands in the air.

  • Keep them up. I have an idea.

  • Those of you who use your brains to navigate these challenges,

  • put your hands down.

  • Okay, anyone with your hands still up

  • has challenges of your own. (Laughter)

  • So we all face challenges,

  • and we all face the dark unknown,

  • which is endemic to most challenges, which is what most of us fear, okay?

  • But we all have brains

  • that allow us, that activate to allow us

  • to navigate the journey through these challenges. Okay?

  • Case in point: I came up here

  • and -- (Clicking) -- they wouldn't tell me

  • where the lectern was.

  • So you can't trust those TED folks.

  • "Find it yourself," they said.

  • So -- (Laughter)

  • And the feedback for the P.A. system is no help at all.

  • So now I present to you a challenge.

  • So if you'd all close your eyes for just a moment, okay?

  • And you're going to learn a bit of flash sonar.

  • I'm going to make a sound.

  • I'm going to hold this panel in front of me, but I'm not going to move it.

  • Just listen to the sound for a moment.

  • Shhhhhhhhhh.

  • Okay, nothing very interesting.

  • Now, listen to what happens to that same exact sound

  • when I move the panel.

  • Shhhhhhhhhhh. (Pitch getting higher and lower)

  • You do not know the power of the dark side.

  • (Laughter)

  • I couldn't resist.

  • Okay, now keep your eyes closed

  • because, did you hear the difference?

  • Okay. Now, let's be sure.

  • For your challenge,

  • you tell me, just say "now" when you hear the panel start to move.

  • Okay? We'll relax into this.

  • Shhhhhhh.

  • Audience: Now. Daniel Kish: Good. Excellent.

  • Open your eyes.

  • All right. So just a few centimeters,

  • you would notice the difference.

  • You've experienced sonar.

  • You'd all make great blind people. (Laughter)

  • Let's have a look at what can happen

  • when this activation process

  • is given some time and attention.

  • (Video) Juan Ruiz: It's like you guys can see with your eyes

  • and we can see with our ears.

  • Brian Bushway: It's not a matter of enjoying it more or less,

  • it's about enjoying it differently.

  • Shawn Marsolais: It goes across. DK: Yeah.

  • SM: And then it's gradually coming back down again.

  • DK: Yes! SM: That's amazing.

  • I can, like, see the car. Holy mother!

  • J. Louchart: I love being blind.

  • If I had the opportunity, honestly, I wouldn't go back to being sighted.

  • JR: The bigger the goal, the more obstacles you'll face,

  • and on the other side of that goal

  • is victory.

  • [In Italian]

  • (Applause)

  • DK: Now, do these people look terrified?

  • Not so much.

  • We have delivered activation training

  • to tens of thousands of blind and sighted people from all backgrounds

  • in nearly 40 countries.

  • When blind people learn to see,

  • sighted people seem inspired

  • to want to learn to see their way better, more clearly, with less fear,

  • because this exemplifies the immense capacity within us all

  • to navigate any type of challenge, through any form of darkness,

  • to discoveries unimagined

  • when we are activated.

  • I wish you all a most activating journey.

  • Thank you very much.

  • (Applause)

  • Chris Anderson: Daniel, my friend.

  • As I know you can see, it's a spectacular standing ovation at TED.

  • Thank you for an extraordinary talk.

  • Just one more question about your world, your inner world that you construct.

  • We think that we have things in our world that you as a blind person don't have,

  • but what's your world like?

  • What do you have that we don't have?

  • DK: Three hundred and sixty-degree view,

  • so my sonar works about as well behind me as it does in front of me.

  • It works around corners.

  • It works through surfaces.

  • Generally, it's kind of a fuzzy three-dimensional geometry.

  • One of my students, who has now become an instructor,

  • when he lost his vision, after a few months

  • he was sitting in his three story house

  • and he realized that he could hear everything going on throughout the house:

  • conversations, people in the kitchen, people in the bathroom,

  • several floors away, several walls away.

  • He said it was something like having x-ray vision.

  • CA: What do you picture that you're in right now?

  • How do you picture this theater?

  • DK: Lots of loudspeakers, quite frankly.

  • It's interesting. When people make a sound,

  • when they laugh, when they fidget, when they take a drink or blow their nose

  • or whatever, I hear everything.

  • I hear every little movement that every single person makes.

  • None of it really escapes my attention,

  • and then, from a sonar perspective,

  • the size of the room, the curvature of the audience around the stage,

  • it's the height of the room.

  • Like I say, it's all that kind of three-dimensional surface geometry

  • all around me.

  • CA: Well, Daniel, you have done a spectacular job

  • of helping us all see the world in a different way.

  • Thanks so much for that, truly. DK: Thank you.

  • (Applause)

(Clicking)

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B1 US TED sonar dk blindness blind clicking

【TED】Daniel Kish: How I use sonar to navigate the world (Daniel Kish: How I use sonar to navigate the world)

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    CUChou posted on 2015/05/29
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