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  • This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. I`m Carl Azuz.

  • The law, the blob and fruits and vegetables

  • are all part of today`s commercial-free coverage.

  • We`re starting with a look at the impact

  • that cameras are having in U.S. law enforcement.

  • Civilians have them on their phones.

  • Police are increasingly using body cameras.

  • The footage that these cameras capture

  • and the public`s access to it,

  • is having a tremendous influence in the court of public opinion.

  • For example, some of the massive protests in different U.S. cities

  • that have followed the controversial deaths of suspects

  • at the hands of police.

  • And some other investigations that have cleared officers of wrongdoing

  • when body cameras confirmed they followed the law

  • in confrontations with suspects.

  • With multiple protests and investigations

  • going on in different cities around the country,

  • we`re taking a look today at how the use of police force

  • is defined by the U.S. Supreme Court.

  • When can police shoot someone?

  • The legal standard for deadly force has been in place since the 1980s,

  • when the Supreme Court in two cases,

  • one was "Tennessee v. Garner," the other "Graham v. Connor,"

  • explained when cops can use deadly force.

  • In the "Garner" case, Memphis police shot 15-year-old Edward Garner

  • when he was trying to climb a fence after escaping from a home burglary.

  • He was unarmed.

  • In finding that it was wrong to kill the teen,

  • the Supreme Court said,

  • "Where the suspect poses no immediate threat

  • to the officer and no threat to others,

  • the harm resulting from failing to apprehend him

  • does not justify the use of deadly force to do so."

  • So bottom line, as an officer, you don`t shoot,

  • you apprehend, unless you believe the suspect

  • is a danger to you or to others in the community.

  • In 1989, the Supreme Court further clarified the law in "Graham v. Connor."

  • In that case, Dethorne Graham, a diabetic,

  • went into a convenience store to get orange juice

  • because he felt the onset of an insulin attack.

  • But when he got into that convenience store,

  • he saw the long lines. He then quickly exited.

  • A police officer saw him,

  • thought that his exit from that convenience store

  • was suspicious and proceeded to follow him and stop him.

  • Other backup officers arrived

  • and slammed Graham`s head onto the police car hood.

  • Graham received several injuries and sued,

  • and the case made it all the way to the Supreme Court

  • There, the Supreme Court found that the officer`s actions were justified.

  • Why? Because the officers reasonably believed

  • that the force that they used was necessary

  • to prevent or detect a crime in progress.

  • The law entrusted decision as to when to use deadly force

  • on the officer and then courts determine

  • whether or not the officer`s actions were reasonable,

  • right then and there at the scene, not in hindsight.

  • The law recognizes that cops

  • have to make split second decisions right at the scene,

  • with the information they have.

  • Starting our Roll Call out West today, way out West,

  • like the last frontier, in Venetie, Alaska,

  • we`re happy to have The Wolf Pack watching at John Fredson School.

  • I hear we have some Cougars online today.

  • These are in The Buckeye State of Ohio.

  • Hello to Crestview High School in Ashland.

  • And one state east of The Keystone State,

  • great to see the Orioles, Rocky Grove High School in Franklin,

  • Pennsylvania is on the Roll.

  • An increasing number of Americans are trading in their hybrid

  • or electric cars for purely gas-powered vehicles, including SUVs.

  • According to Edmunds.com,

  • new hybrid sales are down from last year and a minority,

  • 45 percent of hybrid owners,

  • are trading in for another hybrid,

  • many opting instead for gasoline-powered cars.

  • Why? Well, carmakers have improved the gas mileage of their vehicles

  • and gas-powered cars generally cost less than hybrids.

  • Probably the biggest reason, though, gas prices.

  • AAA says the national average for a gallon is $2.47.

  • A year ago, it was $3.66.

  • So people are less worried about the cost of filling up.

  • The biggest influence on gas prices is the cost of crude oil

  • and OPEC historically has been a major factor in determining that.

  • Whenever you hear about oil, the word OPEC isn`t far behind.

  • OPEC stands for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

  • It`s a group of 12 nations that have a lot of clout

  • in the energy market because they produce about one third

  • of the world`s total oil and export it around the globe.

  • That`s about 30 million barrels of oil every single day.

  • It was formed in 1960.

  • The goal -- to coordinate oil production to ensure

  • that members are pumping enough supply to meet demand.

  • If all 12 countries play by the rules,

  • it can help to regulate and stabilize global oil prices.

  • But there are also plenty of major oil producing nations

  • that are not part of the OPEC club,

  • including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Russia.

  • And they don`t attend OPEC meetings and as such,

  • they`re not bound by the cartel`s decisions.

  • And as these nations have increased their production

  • over the past two years, OPEC`s influence in the market has plunged.

  • There`s now an excess of oil supply,

  • which has pushed down prices significantly.

  • The price drop has caused political problems in some OPEC countries

  • that rely on oil sales heavily to fund their governments.

  • Well, OPEC`s grip on oil may be getting weaker,

  • but it also means lower prices at pumps around the world.

  • There are state trees, state flowers, state birds.

  • Not a lot of states have official state vegetables. Oklahoma does, though.

  • Its official state vegetable is the watermelon.

  • That`s right, a fruit.

  • So why don`t they just make that the official state fruit?

  • Well, because they already have one of those.

  • It`s the strawberry. This is ripe for debate and it`s random.

  • There`s an area of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean.

  • The scientist who named it the blob says it was 1,000 miles long,

  • 1,000 miles wide and 100 yards deep last year,

  • but that it`s grown this year.

  • Scientists say its warmer temperatures aren`t the result of heating,

  • they`re the result of less cooling.

  • They think a high pressure ridge over the West Coast

  • has kept ocean waters calmer than usual

  • and that with fewer storms cooling the surface,

  • they believe more heat has stayed in the water.

  • There isn`t only one blob in the Pacific.

  • There are certain areas in the Pacific Ocean

  • that scientists are calling "the blob."

  • And it may be a little bit more serious than its name implies.

  • It`s actually three different areas. One is in the Gulf of Alaska.

  • Another one in the Bering Sea.

  • And then another one off the coast of Southern California.

  • What scientists are finding is over the last year and a half,

  • the ocean waters have been warmer by about 5.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • When you`re talking about sea surface temperatures,

  • that`s a big deal. Some scientists are saying

  • that "the blob" may be having an impact on thunderstorms in California,

  • and when you get lightning, we`ve seen an increase in forest fires,

  • and we`re also seeing a huge impact on marine life.

  • "the blob" could have the biggest impact on our salmon industry,

  • believe it or not. Salmon live in cooler waters

  • and their food source is leaving.

  • They`re going in search of cooler waters

  • and so the salmon have nothing to eat.

  • Scientists have also found tropical sharks in northern latitudes.

  • They`ve swam anywhere from a couple hundred miles

  • to up to 1,000 miles or so off of their normal migratory patterns

  • and have scientists scratching their heads.

  • Some scientists are saying could this be the Pacific Decadal Oscillation,

  • which is basically a long-lived el nino?

  • We`ve had cooler waters since the `90s,

  • and now they`re wondering if the waters are shifting to more of a warmer pattern.

  • But other scientists are saying it`s more than that.

  • Robots -- they`re great at clean floors

  • or helping build vehicles or moving stuff around.

  • They`re terrible at dodge ball.

  • Just look at this thing.

  • No catching, no throwing back, just getting out over and over again.

  • Don`t overlook its strength, though.

  • This bipedal robot at Oregon State University isn`t stopping

  • or falling over like a human would.

  • Its suspension system,

  • a unique way to store mechanical energy, keeps it on all twos.

  • So don`t let it robot-her you that it doesn`t look like it`s having a ball.

  • That`s no knock on it.

  • It`s got a leg up on lesser machines that

  • would shut down on the dodge ball circuit.

  • We always aim for balanced coverage on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • Come on back Friday.

This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. I`m Carl Azuz.

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