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  • Fridays are awesome.

  • We`re wrapping up the last week of February here on CNN STUDENT NEWS

  • and we won`t see you again until next month. I`m Carl Azuz.

  • First up today is the deadline for Congress and the president

  • to agree on funding for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

  • This includes roughly 200,000 people

  • -- Border Patrol and Customs officers, Secret Service agents,

  • TSA screeners at airports, plus their managers and administrators.

  • Without funding, many of these people wouldn`t get paid,

  • at least not until the funding is restored.

  • But they`ll still be required to work for the safety of the country.

  • So most Americans wouldn`t immediately notice the effects of the shutdown.

  • So what`s the sticking point?

  • Some Republican lawmakers say that funding the department

  • is tied to President Obama`s executive order on immigration.

  • That was done last year without Congress` approval

  • and it allows millions of people who were in the U.S. illegally to stay and get work permits.

  • The president wants that order to stand. Some lawmakers don`t.

  • Something has got to give if the Department of Homeland Security

  • is to get funding by today`s deadline.

  • What is net neutrality?

  • It has nothing to do with a volleyball or a tennis court.

  • The net refers to the Internet, something that`s become as necessary

  • as water and power for most of us.

  • The neutrality part is about keeping the net the way it is today.

  • It`s a set of rules the FCC approved in 2010

  • to prevent speed traps on the information superhighway.

  • In other words, speeding up access to some sites and slowing down access to others

  • or blocking certain sites entirely.

  • So are these rules a bad thing?It depends who you ask.

  • The companies that deliver your Internet, like Comcast, Verizon and AT&T,

  • have spent millions in lobbying money to get rid of net neutrality,

  • arguing that having the government micromanage their business

  • is not good for them or their consumers.

  • On the other side are Internet giants like Facebook and Google,

  • streaming services like Netflix and President Obama.

  • They all argue the Internet is a public good and should be regulated like one.

  • They also say that companies that own the pipelines can play favorites.

  • For example, a content provider like Netflix is in direct competition with Comcast,

  • which owns NBC Universal and controls access to the Internet

  • for more than 20 million customers.

  • You can imagine a scenario where NBC might want to speed up streams

  • of its shows and slow down streams of its rival, Netflix.

  • Now, Netflix can afford to pay for a fast lane.

  • They make $4 billion a year. But the next Netflix, some awesome start-up can`t.

  • Yesterday, the Federal Communications Commission, the FCC,

  • voted 3-2 to expand government control over the Internet in the US.

  • And it says it`s using that control to keep the Internet as it is,

  • to keep speeds and access to Web sites about even.

  • The rules won`t take effect until this summer.

  • They can be challenged or reversed in court and the next president could let them go.

  • Supporters of the FCC decision say the Internet will stay open

  • and not have private gatekeepers control speeds.

  • Opponents say this opens the door to more government rules on the Internet in the future.

  • From the eastern part of The Empire State to Eastern Asia,

  • it`s time for the call of the Roll.

  • Centereach, New York is located on Long Island.

  • So is Dawnwood Middle School.

  • It`s where The Cougars are in class today.

  • The West Coast, just west of Portlan

  • is where we found Beaverton High School in Beaverton, Oregon.

  • The Beavers are online.

  • And Bucheon is in the northwest part of South Korea.

  • It`s great to see the students of Ilsen Middle School (ph) are watching CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • It`s no coincidence that the acronym for Seasonal Affective Disorder is SAD.

  • A psychiatrist first described it in 1984.

  • Mayo Clinic lists SAD, or S-A-D, as a type of depression.

  • It usually starts late in the fall or early in the winter and usually ends

  • when the days get longer in spring and summertime.

  • Treating it can be as easy as laughing with your loved ones.

  • Even if you love the cold and winter sports,

  • you`ve got to admit, this has felt like a long winter.

  • At least 12 million Americans suffer from something known as Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD.

  • The number is probably even higher than that.

  • Longer nights, shorter days -- all of that leads to a chemical imbalance in the brain.

  • What happens is your serotonin levels are down and melatonin,

  • which makes you sleepy, that`s up. Does it make sense?

  • Symptoms can be mild or severe. You can get fatigue, lack of energy, oversleeping,

  • difficulty concentrating and also cravings for food that cause weight gain.

  • That probably sounds familiar, as well.

  • Diet and exercise can always help. Also, get outside as much as you can.

  • You can also get a specialty designed light box.

  • You just sit there and stare at it for a while each day, or at least put it on your desk.

  • The point is, you can get a boost of more natural light.

  • In the worst case, some doctors may recommend anti-depressants

  • or psychotherapy to help you get through this.

  • Another tidbit, find things that bring you joy.

  • Open up the blinds in your house.

  • Play some of your favorite music and be with your family.

  • Laughter and togetherness are always great therapy for the winter blues.

  • Time for the Shoutout.

  • A capoas, interrogatories and prima facie would most likely be discussed in what setting?

  • If you think you know it, shout it out.

  • Is it a political debate, design studio, court case or military plan?

  • You`ve got three seconds. Go.

  • These are all common legal terms most likely to come up in court cases.

  • That`s the answer and that`s your Shoutout.

  • We`ve been exploring some U.S. legal terms and legal processes this year.

  • How exactly is a jury chosen?

  • That`s answered on our January 30th show.

  • What is the insanity defense, on our February 12th show.

  • You can find these in our show archives at cnnstudentnews.com.

  • Today, we`re looking at the juvenile justice system in the US.

  • Our entire juvenile justice system is based on this concept

  • that neurologically and developmentally, children are different.

  • In the adult system, the focus is on punishment, retribution,

  • deterrence and separation and safety of the public.

  • In the juvenile justice system, it`s different.

  • The focus is on the child, on treatment, rehabilitation and supervision.

  • In some states, depending on the crime, the juvenile lands in adult court automatically.

  • The judge and the prosecutor don`t even have any choice in the matter.

  • And in those cases, adult courts will have original jurisdiction over particularly awful crimes,

  • like murder or attempted murder.

  • In other cases in other states, it`s discretionary.

  • The prosecutor has the discretion to try and put the case in adult court.

  • If you do something really horrific, you don`t get the benefit of that system. (END VIDEO TAPE)

  • We`ve seen a lot of dog stories on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • This is one of the smartest. Maybe your dog knows tricks.

  • Maybe it can jump through hoops or weave through legs.

  • But this one, a mini Australian shepherd, knows how to read. What?

  • Read. You`ll notice some of the letters on the signs are in bold, though.

  • The trainer says this starts by teaching simple commands

  • -- sit, lie down.

  • Then she teaches Mia, the dog, corresponding hand signals and finally come the signs.

  • They have bold letters that the dog learns to associate with the commands.

  • Mia can tell the difference between a bold S for sit and a bold SP for spin.

  • So you don`t need to read into this story to see that Mia is one doggone sublime canine.

  • She is literally awesome

  • But couldn`t you teach these new tricks to an old dog

  • like a Labreador Retreater, a Readwiler, a Weimareader?

  • It would certainly chihua-wow your friends.

  • I`m Carl Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS.

  • Hope you booked a great weekend and that you`ll fetch another 10 minutes for us on Monday.

Fridays are awesome.

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February 27, 2015 - CNN Student News with subtitles

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