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• In society, we have to follow laws that maintain order.

• Did you know all chemical matter follows certain laws as well?

• In fact, we can describe those laws by looking at relationships.

• Some easy laws to begin with are the ones that govern the gases.

• Back in 1662, Robert Boyle realized that gases had an interesting response

• when he put them into containers and changed their volume.

• Take an empty bottle and put the cap on it, closing that container.

• Now squeeze your bottle, and what happens?

• The pressure inside the bottle increases when the size of the container decreases.

• You can only crush that container so much until the gases inside push back on your hand.

• This is called an inverse proportion, and it changes at the same rate for every gas.

• Boyle's law allows chemists to predict the volume of any gas at any given pressure

• because the relationship is always the same.

• In 1780, Jacques Charles noticed a different relationship between gases and their temperature.

• If you've ever seen a hot-air balloon, you've seen this law in action.

• When the ballons are laid out, they're totally flat.

• Instead of blowing the balloon up like a party balloon, they use a giant flame to heat the air inside that envelope.

• As the air is heated up, the balloon begins to inflate as the gas volume increases.

• The hotter the gas becomes, the larger the volume, and that's Charles' law.

• Notice this law is different from Boyle's.

• Charles' law is a direct relationship.

• As the temperature increases, the volume increases as well.

• The third law is also easily demonstrated.

• When you're blowing up party balloons, the volume increases.

• As you are blowing, you're forcing more and more gas particles into the balloon from your lungs.

• This causes the balloon volume to increase. This is Avogadro's law in action.

• As the number of particles of gas added to a container are increased,

• the volume will increase as well.

• If you add too many particles, well, you know what happens next.

• Laws are everywhere, even in the tiniest particles of gas.

• If you squeeze them, the pressure will increase as the particles are pushed together.

• Low volume means a high pressure because those particles push back.

• As the temperature increases, gases move away from one another, and the volume increases as well.

• Finally, if you add gas to a closed container, that container's volume will expand.

• But be careful not to add too much, because otherwise you could end up with a burst balloon.

In society, we have to follow laws that maintain order.

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