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  • In society, we have to follow laws that maintain order.

  • Did you know all chemical matter follows certain laws as well?

  • In fact, we can describe those laws by looking at relationships.

  • Some easy laws to begin with are the ones that govern the gases.

  • Back in 1662, Robert Boyle realized that gases had an interesting response

  • when he put them into containers and changed their volume.

  • Take an empty bottle and put the cap on it, closing that container.

  • Now squeeze your bottle, and what happens?

  • The pressure inside the bottle increases when the size of the container decreases.

  • You can only crush that container so much until the gases inside push back on your hand.

  • This is called an inverse proportion, and it changes at the same rate for every gas.

  • Boyle's law allows chemists to predict the volume of any gas at any given pressure

  • because the relationship is always the same.

  • In 1780, Jacques Charles noticed a different relationship between gases and their temperature.

  • If you've ever seen a hot-air balloon, you've seen this law in action.

  • When the ballons are laid out, they're totally flat.

  • Instead of blowing the balloon up like a party balloon, they use a giant flame to heat the air inside that envelope.

  • As the air is heated up, the balloon begins to inflate as the gas volume increases.

  • The hotter the gas becomes, the larger the volume, and that's Charles' law.

  • Notice this law is different from Boyle's.

  • Charles' law is a direct relationship.

  • As the temperature increases, the volume increases as well.

  • The third law is also easily demonstrated.

  • When you're blowing up party balloons, the volume increases.

  • As you are blowing, you're forcing more and more gas particles into the balloon from your lungs.

  • This causes the balloon volume to increase. This is Avogadro's law in action.

  • As the number of particles of gas added to a container are increased,

  • the volume will increase as well.

  • If you add too many particles, well, you know what happens next.

  • Laws are everywhere, even in the tiniest particles of gas.

  • If you squeeze them, the pressure will increase as the particles are pushed together.

  • Low volume means a high pressure because those particles push back.

  • As the temperature increases, gases move away from one another, and the volume increases as well.

  • Finally, if you add gas to a closed container, that container's volume will expand.

  • But be careful not to add too much, because otherwise you could end up with a burst balloon.

In society, we have to follow laws that maintain order.

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B1 INT US TED-Ed volume balloon gas container boyle

【TED-Ed】The ABC's of gas: Avogadro, Boyle, Charles - Brian Bennett

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    Kevin Tan posted on 2014/08/14
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