Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hmm-hmm-hmm. Hey, my phone's ringing. I wonder who it could be. Hey, there's E and Mini E. Let's listen in on the conversation. But before we do, I want to explain today's lesson is on the short forms of some auxiliary verbs, such as the verb: "have", "would", and "will", and how we use... how you can tell when you should use a contraction or what the contraction means when you see it. If you don't know what I mean, don't worry; we'll go to the board and we'll figure it out. First off, let's listen to this conversation. "I would call James again but he is not home." Well, I have my phone on me. "Well, I'd call him again if I were you." Now, this video is brought to you for... this is for Vanessa from Peru. She's Mini E because she's short; she's short. It's kind of... don't get angry, Vanessa. Anyway, so this is a contraction. Now, is this: "I would" or "I had"? If you don't know, it's okay; our lesson today will teach you how. So, let's do a quick overview of what we're talking about. We're going to talk about the verb "to have", the verb "to be", and a couple of modal verbs, and what the contractions are. I've put the contractions up here, and as you can see: "had" becomes "'d", "has" becomes "'s", the contraction for "have" is "'ve". The apostrophe tells us that the beginning part of the verb is missing, so this is what is left over. When we look over at the verb "to be", the same thing is here. We have the verb... you know, we have "are" becomes "'re", "is" becomes "'s", and "am" becomes "'m". If you were paying close attention, I have "'s" and "'s", and you might say: "Well, if you have both, how do I know the difference?" We're going to get there. The last one for the modal verbs are: "would" and "will". And once again, "'d" and you'll say: "Hey, you've done it again. There are two of these." I go: Yeah, I know, and so will you shortly, and how to tell the difference and use it. And the "'ll". I'm not talking LL Cool J. Sorry. [Laughs] Anyway, so how do we identify or use these in the correct form? So, let's go... start off with the verb "have" to start off with. We've got the "'d", "'s", "'ve". Well, what you want to find after you have this added to any pronoun, like: "I've", "you've", or what have you, is look for a past participle. A past participle is a word that indicates a past... that the past is attached to it. Some are easy. With regular verbs they're exactly the same; irregular verbs, they can be changed. So: "see" becomes not "saw", but "seen". Okay? "Be" becomes "been"; or "gone" instead of "went". So, sometimes they're different than the past... the past verbs, and other times they're exactly the same. So let's look an example in this case for the "have". "I'd seen the movie before." Well, we know this... how do we know this is: "I had seen"? This is a past participle. So: "I'd seen", this is a past participle, and we look this, we know this is: "I had seen the movie before." Good. Let's look at the next one. Is it: "He is gone home" or "He has gone home"? Well, "is" this is a past participle: "gone", so then we know this is "has", so: "He has gone home." Good. And then what about this one? It's almost easy because it's "'ve", so we know it's going to be "have", but: "I've always loved"... remember I said this is a regular past tense? So, this past participle is a regular verb, so it's easy to see here. "I have always loved these flowers; they are beautiful". "I've loved", past participle. Good. All right. So now that we've looked at that example, let's look at the other one that might be a bit confusing with the verb "to be" because we have the "'s" and the "'s". What can we do to identify it so we know the correct form to use? Well, we have: "'re", "'s", and "'m". And the first thing it says here is: If you see any of this and it's followed by a verb with an "ing", then it's probably the verb "to be". Or if it's followed by an adjective, it's the verb "to be"; not the verb "to have". What are the examples? Well, we're going to take the same sentences we have here, and redo them in a fashion that we can see the difference. So, here, it says: "I'm seeing that movie later". "I am" is followed by a verb "to be", "ing", "that movie". Good. Now, let's look at the second sentence: "He's going home." Now, before we didn't know if it was: "He has going home" or "He is going home", but we notice there is a verb-"ing" here, which makes this the verb "to be". "He is going home." And if we compare over here: "He has gone", we can see the past participle versus the verb with "ing" to make it clear. Good. And now let's look at the last one. I played a little trick here to make it a little bit more interesting. "I love these flowers; they're beautiful." We see the "'re" is here, and you're going to say: "I don't see an 'ing'. Well, what is that?" Do you remember what I said? It also can be followed by an adjective, because: "I am happy", "happy" is an adjective. In this case, it is: "The flowers are beautiful", so the flowers, they are beautiful. So it's showing an adjective following this contraction to explain it's the verb "to be". Good? You're doing a good job. Now let's go to the third and final one before we go to our, you know... the stage where I like to check to make sure you understand and sort of, like, a little test, but really it's to finalize your learning. Let's look at the modal verbs: "would" and "will". As I said before, the "'d" might be confusing for you because we have it on the verb to... verb to... verb "to have". So, how do we identify it so that we know that they're not the same? Well, let's take a look. "I'd see that movie if it were free." Now, when we said it was the verb "to have", you need a past participle. A rule for modals are: When you... is when you have a modal it's followed by the base form of the verb. Right? So, an example: "I can do it", "You could go", "We will"... I'll say: "We will do something", "We will... we will buy it". So, the verb that follows a modal has to be in the base form, versus the verb that follows the verb "have", which is a past participle. So, let's look here: "I'd seen the movie", "I'd see the movie". This is the base form. So, because we had the base form, we know it cannot be a past participle, therefore it's not the verb "have". So, it means: "I would see", and that's what it is. "I would see that movie". And I'll give you another little thing that I didn't mention. We're talking about conditional here because "I'd", here, this is imaginary. "I would see if..." So: "I would if..." That'll be helpful sometimes, if you look for this "if" that follows, and that would give you: "I would do this if..." Cool? All right. But just sticking to the basic rule, anyway: "I" followed by a verb in the base, it's easy enough to remember. This is just a little extra hint for you. All right? Now let's look over here. The next one: "He'll go home." The verb is in the base, so we know this, the "'ll" is: "He will go home." Future tense, right? "He will go home in five minutes", or what have you. And let's look at the final one: "I'll always love these flowers; they are beautiful". "I'll", apostrophe, we know this... we're using a contraction. And "love" is in the base form; not: "loved" or... I don't know. Yeah. I'm trying to think of something funny, like... to put in the past participle, but "loved" would be it. So: "I'll", "love" base form, this way we know that this is a modal verb and we're using "will". Pretty good? Got it so far? I want to do something, but we're going to take a small break before we go to the quiz at the end where we can actually compare and just make sure you really solidified that answer. So, I'm going to give you a double-click, and we'll go there, and then we'll come back at the end for our little quiz. Are you ready? [Snaps twice] Okay. So, I'm just a little casual because we're going to do a quick, little review; and then, you know, when my sweater's back on, it'll be the regular lesson. Are you ready? Let's go to the board. So, the other James doesn't know we're practicing before we do the actual lesson. Okay? Let's go. So, here's our quick practice. Now, you'll notice that I have up here: "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m", "'s", and "'d". So you're going to want to figure out what this actually stands for and why we're going to put it here. So, let's look at the first sentence. "Happy" is an adjective, right? "Happy" is an adjective. And what did we say goes with adjectives? The verb "to be", correct? So, we're going to put this one. This one's an easy, no-brainer. "I'm happy", because this goes here and it's for: "I am". Good. What about the next one? "She'___ been gone for an hour." Remember we said "been" on words like these, past participles, will follow what kind of verb? Okay? Well, it's the verb "has", right? So: "She has", because it's past participle, goes there. Okay? So, it's: "She has been gone", it's the past participle. Now, what about this one? "They'___ have been late if Mr. E didn't drive." This one, it seemed tricky because you've got a past tense verb, here, but really we have to look at the verb that follows right after. And then now you might even be thinking: "But that's 'have'." So, it would be: "They'd", that means: "They would have been late", okay? So this is the modal: "would", right? Because this verb is in the present form, so we can see how the adjective, the past participle, and the present form can change the meaning of each one of these. Not bad. You guys did a good job. Now, let's get back to the lesson before James notices we're missing. Are you ready? [Snaps twice] Hey. Okay, there you are. I was wondering where you went to. You were supposed to come here to the board, and nobody showed up for a couple of minutes. Were you practicing? If you were, that's a good thing. So let's see if we can put that practice to good work. Now, we're going to look at the board, read the sentence, and it probably reads pretty well before we put the contractions, but let's just... let's go through it. "Mr. E is happy because he knew Raquel would come if he let her cook dinner." Okay? "'I will buy the best food', he thought to himself. He had brought some... he had bought some red wine two days earlier, while he was buying chocolate for her. 'I am the luckiest worm in the world', he said out loud." Great. Now, let's... the first thing I want to do is identify what we should change, because we've been talking about contractions, and what would be possible we can change. So, I'm going to look over here, and this, this looks like an adjective to me when I see a verb "to be" here. So, if that's an adjective, we might be able to look over here for a possible change. Okay, so: "Raquel would come"... hmm. I think we could change this, because here's "would" and here's "come" in the verb base; maybe we could do something here. And I'm going to say this seems the same here, because this is the verb in the base and "he would". Uh-huh. Hmm. Now, verb in the base again. So, we've got this here, so I'm going to look over here. I think I can do something with that. All right? Anything else you guys can see we can fix?