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  • Hmm-hmm-hmm.

  • Hey, my phone's ringing.

  • I wonder who it could be.

  • Hey, there's E and Mini E. Let's listen in on the conversation.

  • But before we do, I want to explain today's lesson is on the short forms of some auxiliary

  • verbs, such as the verb: "have", "would", and "will", and how we use...

  • how you can tell when you should use a contraction or what the contraction means when you see it.

  • If you don't know what I mean, don't worry; we'll go to the board and we'll figure it out.

  • First off, let's listen to this conversation.

  • "I would call James again but he is not home."

  • Well, I have my phone on me.

  • "Well, I'd call him again if I were you."

  • Now, this video is brought to you for... this is for Vanessa from Peru.

  • She's Mini E because she's short; she's short.

  • It's kind of... don't get angry, Vanessa.

  • Anyway, so this is a contraction.

  • Now, is this: "I would" or "I had"?

  • If you don't know, it's okay; our lesson today will teach you how.

  • So, let's do a quick overview of what we're talking about.

  • We're going to talk about the verb "to have", the verb "to be", and a couple of modal verbs,

  • and what the contractions are.

  • I've put the contractions up here, and as you can see: "had" becomes "'d", "has" becomes

  • "'s", the contraction for "have" is "'ve".

  • The apostrophe tells us that the beginning part of the verb is missing, so this is what

  • is left over.

  • When we look over at the verb "to be", the same thing is here.

  • We have the verb... you know, we have "are" becomes "'re", "is" becomes "'s", and "am"

  • becomes "'m".

  • If you were paying close attention, I have "'s" and "'s", and you might say: "Well, if

  • you have both, how do I know the difference?"

  • We're going to get there.

  • The last one for the modal verbs are: "would" and "will".

  • And once again, "'d" and you'll say: "Hey, you've done it again.

  • There are two of these."

  • I go: Yeah, I know, and so will you shortly, and how to tell the difference and use it.

  • And the "'ll".

  • I'm not talking LL Cool J. Sorry.

  • [Laughs] Anyway, so how do we identify or use these in the correct form?

  • So, let's go... start off with the verb "have" to start off with.

  • We've got the "'d", "'s", "'ve".

  • Well, what you want to find after you have this added to any pronoun, like: "I've", "you've",

  • or what have you, is look for a past participle.

  • A past participle is a word that indicates a past... that the past is attached to it.

  • Some are easy.

  • With regular verbs they're exactly the same; irregular verbs, they can be changed.

  • So: "see" becomes not "saw", but "seen".

  • Okay?

  • "Be" becomes "been"; or "gone" instead of "went".

  • So, sometimes they're different than the past... the past verbs, and other times they're exactly

  • the same.

  • So let's look an example in this case for the "have".

  • "I'd seen the movie before."

  • Well, we know this... how do we know this is: "I had seen"?

  • This is a past participle.

  • So: "I'd seen", this is a past participle, and we look this, we know this is: "I had

  • seen the movie before."

  • Good.

  • Let's look at the next one.

  • Is it: "He is gone home" or "He has gone home"?

  • Well, "is" this is a past participle: "gone", so then we know this is "has", so: "He has

  • gone home."

  • Good.

  • And then what about this one?

  • It's almost easy because it's "'ve", so we know it's going to be "have", but: "I've always

  • loved"... remember I said this is a regular past tense?

  • So, this past participle is a regular verb, so it's easy to see here.

  • "I have always loved these flowers; they are beautiful".

  • "I've loved", past participle.

  • Good.

  • All right.

  • So now that we've looked at that example, let's look at the other one that might be

  • a bit confusing with the verb "to be" because we have the "'s" and the "'s".

  • What can we do to identify it so we know the correct form to use?

  • Well, we have: "'re", "'s", and "'m".

  • And the first thing it says here is: If you see any of this and it's followed by a verb

  • with an "ing", then it's probably the verb "to be".

  • Or if it's followed by an adjective, it's the verb "to be"; not the verb "to have".

  • What are the examples?

  • Well, we're going to take the same sentences we have here, and redo them in a fashion that

  • we can see the difference.

  • So, here, it says: "I'm seeing that movie later".

  • "I am" is followed by a verb "to be", "ing", "that movie".

  • Good.

  • Now, let's look at the second sentence: "He's going home."

  • Now, before we didn't know if it was: "He has going home" or "He is going home", but

  • we notice there is a verb-"ing" here, which makes this the verb "to be".

  • "He is going home."

  • And if we compare over here: "He has gone", we can see the past participle versus the

  • verb with "ing" to make it clear.

  • Good.

  • And now let's look at the last one.

  • I played a little trick here to make it a little bit more interesting.

  • "I love these flowers; they're beautiful."

  • We see the "'re" is here, and you're going to say: "I don't see an 'ing'.

  • Well, what is that?"

  • Do you remember what I said?

  • It also can be followed by an adjective, because: "I am happy", "happy" is an adjective.

  • In this case, it is: "The flowers are beautiful", so the flowers, they are beautiful.

  • So it's showing an adjective following this contraction to explain it's the verb "to be".

  • Good?

  • You're doing a good job.

  • Now let's go to the third and final one before we go to our, you know... the stage where

  • I like to check to make sure you understand and sort of, like, a little test, but really

  • it's to finalize your learning.

  • Let's look at the modal verbs: "would" and "will".

  • As I said before, the "'d" might be confusing for you because we have it on the verb to...

  • verb to... verb "to have".

  • So, how do we identify it so that we know that they're not the same?

  • Well, let's take a look.

  • "I'd see that movie if it were free."

  • Now, when we said it was the verb "to have", you need a past participle.

  • A rule for modals are: When you... is when you have a modal it's followed by the base

  • form of the verb.

  • Right?

  • So, an example: "I can do it", "You could go", "We will"...

  • I'll say: "We will do something", "We will... we will buy it".

  • So, the verb that follows a modal has to be in the base form, versus the verb that follows

  • the verb "have", which is a past participle.

  • So, let's look here: "I'd seen the movie", "I'd see the movie".

  • This is the base form.

  • So, because we had the base form, we know it cannot be a past participle, therefore

  • it's not the verb "have".

  • So, it means: "I would see", and that's what it is.

  • "I would see that movie".

  • And I'll give you another little thing that I didn't mention.

  • We're talking about conditional here because "I'd", here, this is imaginary.

  • "I would see if..."

  • So: "I would if..."

  • That'll be helpful sometimes, if you look for this "if" that follows, and that would

  • give you: "I would do this if..."

  • Cool?

  • All right.

  • But just sticking to the basic rule, anyway: "I" followed by a verb in the base, it's easy

  • enough to remember.

  • This is just a little extra hint for you.

  • All right?

  • Now let's look over here.

  • The next one: "He'll go home."

  • The verb is in the base, so we know this, the "'ll" is: "He will go home."

  • Future tense, right?

  • "He will go home in five minutes", or what have you.

  • And let's look at the final one: "I'll always love these flowers; they are beautiful".

  • "I'll", apostrophe, we know this... we're using a contraction.

  • And "love" is in the base form; not: "loved" or...

  • I don't know.

  • Yeah.

  • I'm trying to think of something funny, like... to put in the past participle, but "loved"

  • would be it.

  • So: "I'll", "love" base form, this way we know that this is a modal verb and we're using

  • "will".

  • Pretty good?

  • Got it so far?

  • I want to do something, but we're going to take a small break before we go to the quiz

  • at the end where we can actually compare and just make sure you really solidified that

  • answer.

  • So, I'm going to give you a double-click, and we'll go there, and then we'll come back

  • at the end for our little quiz.

  • Are you ready?

  • [Snaps twice]

  • Okay.

  • So, I'm just a little casual because we're going to do a quick, little review; and then,

  • you know, when my sweater's back on, it'll be the regular lesson.

  • Are you ready?

  • Let's go to the board.

  • So, the other James doesn't know we're practicing before we do the actual lesson.

  • Okay?

  • Let's go.

  • So, here's our quick practice.

  • Now, you'll notice that I have up here: "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m", "'s", and "'d"; "'m",

  • "'s", and "'d".

  • So you're going to want to figure out what this actually stands for and why we're going

  • to put it here.

  • So, let's look at the first sentence.

  • "Happy" is an adjective, right?

  • "Happy" is an adjective.

  • And what did we say goes with adjectives?

  • The verb "to be", correct?

  • So, we're going to put this one.

  • This one's an easy, no-brainer.

  • "I'm happy", because this goes here and it's for: "I am".

  • Good.

  • What about the next one?

  • "She'___ been gone for an hour."

  • Remember we said "been" on words like these, past participles, will follow what kind of

  • verb?

  • Okay?

  • Well, it's the verb "has", right?

  • So: "She has", because it's past participle, goes there.

  • Okay?

  • So, it's: "She has been gone", it's the past participle.

  • Now, what about this one?

  • "They'___ have been late if Mr. E didn't drive."

  • This one, it seemed tricky because you've got a past tense verb, here, but really we

  • have to look at the verb that follows right after.

  • And then now you might even be thinking: "But that's 'have'."

  • So, it would be: "They'd", that means: "They would have been late", okay?

  • So this is the modal: "would", right?

  • Because this verb is in the present form, so we can see how the adjective, the past

  • participle, and the present form can change the meaning of each one of these.

  • Not bad.

  • You guys did a good job.

  • Now, let's get back to the lesson before James notices we're missing.

  • Are you ready?

  • [Snaps twice]

  • Hey.

  • Okay, there you are.

  • I was wondering where you went to.

  • You were supposed to come here to the board, and nobody showed up for a couple of minutes.

  • Were you practicing?

  • If you were, that's a good thing.

  • So let's see if we can put that practice to good work.

  • Now, we're going to look at the board, read the sentence, and it probably reads pretty

  • well before we put the contractions, but let's just... let's go through it.

  • "Mr. E is happy because he knew Raquel would come if he let her cook dinner."

  • Okay?

  • "'I will buy the best food', he thought to himself.

  • He had brought some... he had bought some red wine two days earlier, while he was buying

  • chocolate for her.

  • 'I am the luckiest worm in the world', he said out loud."

  • Great.

  • Now, let's... the first thing I want to do is identify what we should change, because

  • we've been talking about contractions, and what would be possible we can change.

  • So, I'm going to look over here, and this, this looks like an adjective to me when I

  • see a verb "to be" here.

  • So, if that's an adjective, we might be able to look over here for a possible change.

  • Okay, so: "Raquel would come"... hmm.

  • I think we could change this, because here's "would" and here's "come" in the verb base;

  • maybe we could do something here.

  • And I'm going to say this seems the same here, because this is the verb in the base and "he

  • would".

  • Uh-huh.

  • Hmm.

  • Now, verb in the base again.

  • So, we've got this here, so I'm going to look over here.

  • I think I can do something with that.

  • All right?

  • Anything else you guys can see we can fix?