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  • A man is braced to go outside on the coldest  day on record in years. Snow is falling and  

  • to his eyes, the winter wonderland  is both mesmerizing and inviting,  

  • but the truth is it's far from hospitable. He's  not outside long when he coughs and then finds  

  • it difficult to breathe. Soon his teeth start  chattering and his hands and arms are shaking.  

  • He decides it's time to go back insideThat's enough mesmerization for one day

  • Oh God, he's locked himself out. He reaches for the flask of whisky  

  • in his pocket, thinking a hit of that will warm  him up a bit. What he doesn't know is that's a  

  • really bad idea. After he's downed the booze, he  needs to urinate. The problem now is his hands are  

  • numb and his organ has shrunk so much he gets  a flashback from when he was two. Worse still,  

  • just minutes after he pees, he needs to go again. He scrunches down, hoping someone will see him

  • What we just described to you is a realistic  scenario describing a lot of automatic things  

  • that the body does when someone is cold. There's  a lot of science in there, so we're going to tell  

  • you exactly what happened to this guy and what  might happen if he stayed outside much longer

  • So, he coughed. Any of you people who live in  places where the weather can get bitterly cold  

  • will know all about coughing on really bad daysThe coughing is down to the cold dry air that  

  • can dry the airways and in turn cause muscles  to spasm. This can also narrow the airways,  

  • and that's why breathing can become laboredEven if you're super healthy it can happen,  

  • but if you've got respiratory problems  the outcome will likely be worse

  • Ok, so then his teeth started  chattering, what was going on there

  • That's a result of shivering. You seewhen you are really cold your body wants  

  • to bring your temperature up. To do that,  a part of the brain called the hypothalamus  

  • sends messages to the rest of the body  saying the thermostat needs more power.  

  • One thing that happens then is muscles start to  rapidly contract and relax. Some of those muscles  

  • are in the jaw, hence the teeth chattering. The guy then drank some whisky from his flask,  

  • which did actually make him feel warmer. The  problem is, that hit of booze actually interrupted  

  • some of his body's natural warming processesIt made him feel warm for a while, but it was  

  • actually giving him a false sense of security. You see, alcohol is what's called a vasodilator.  

  • This means it can make a person's blood vessels  expand, which can make someone feel flushed  

  • and bring on a feeling of warmness. All you  drinkers out there will know this. But what  

  • you really need when you're cold is your blood  vessels to constrict, not dilate, because in the  

  • long run, this will maintain your warmth better. Our guy might have got a temporary rush of blood  

  • to the head and a nice warming feeling come over  him, but because his blood vessels have dilated,  

  • he's now going to cool down faster  than if he had left the whisky alone

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control  and Prevention, there are often cases of people  

  • getting hypothermia after drinking alcohol  in cold temperatures. If you're drunk,  

  • you might also have too much courage and think  you can handle that long walk home in the snow.  

  • This has led to people passing out in the snowNever let the booze trick you into thinking you  

  • are warm. That's some solid advice right there. He then needed to pee. This wasn't just because  

  • of the whisky, it was also because in  the cold people generally pee more often.  

  • This is down to something called, “Cold Diuresis”,  which is a result of your body trying to direct  

  • more blood to those vital organs of yours. That's  your body helping you out. One after-affect of  

  • this is your kidneys getting more blood flow  and them trying to filter out all the waste  

  • during urination. That's why cold people pee more. This guy struggled to pee, with one reason being  

  • his hands were numb and he wasn't exactly deft  with his digits. The reason people's extremities  

  • become numb when they're cold is that their brain  wants more blood to get to those vital organs

  • Things were exacerbated for this guy because his  John Thomas had shrunk. What was going on there

  • Well, yet again, it's down to less blood flow to  certain parts of your body, and the penis is one  

  • of those parts that takes a hit for more important  parts of the body. When cold, a man's member can  

  • actually shrink by about 50 percent in length and  around 30 percent in width, which can make peeing  

  • with cold hands very hard indeed. As for the  testicles, they move up closer to the trunk of  

  • the body so they can get more warmth. This doesn't  bode well if you want to make love, which is a  

  • reason people in the past have talked about taking  cold showers as a means to destimulate. The cold  

  • is certainly not great if you want to be aroused. So, we have a guy who is already numb;  

  • he keeps needing to go to the bathroom and he  has crouched down to try and preserve heat.  

  • What could possibly happen to him next? The answer is he could get hypothermia,  

  • and at the extreme end of this, he might  start taking off his clothes even though  

  • that is a very bad idea. This strange  reaction is called, “paradoxical undressing.”  

  • You already know that the blood vessels contract  to preserve heat, but if someone is in bad shape  

  • the muscles can become paralyzed and this can  make the person suddenly feel very warm as the  

  • blood vessels dilate. It usually means the end. What's even weirder is that many people who've  

  • reached this stage have later been found dead  under a bed or inside a wardrobe. It was as if  

  • they had gone into some kind of primitive state  and tried to hibernate. The term for this is,  

  • Terminal Burrowing Behavior.” In the past, this  behavior has led police to think the person was  

  • the victim of a crime. That's likely the first  thing that would come to mind if you found a  

  • naked person stuffed into some very tight space. Ok, now for more incredible things your body does  

  • and there's nothing you can do about it. You've likely all at one point in your life  

  • experienced having goosebumps, but the most  perplexing case of goosebumps is when they  

  • happen when you are inspired by somethingmaybe a moving speech or an amazing song

  • First, we need to talk about something called  the sympathetic nervous system. This usually  

  • sends messages to organs when a person is  in a dangerous situation. When it activates,  

  • we have what's called a fight or flight responsewhich can be stuff like a rise in blood pressure  

  • and your heart beating faster. That worked very  well for humans in the past when they heard the  

  • roar of a saber tooth tiger behind them. It can also make a person have goosebumps,  

  • but for various reasons. You see, a long time ago  us humans had a lot more body hair, what you could  

  • call a fur coat. It's thought that we shed that  coat and got naked around 1.2 million years ago

  • If one of those prehistoric beings was very  cold, a natural reaction would be for his  

  • body hair to stand on end to trap more heatThese days we aren't anywhere near as hirsute,  

  • so instead of our body hair sitting up  to attention, we see only goosebumps

  • That's one reason. Another is that if an animal in  

  • the wild came face-to-face with a prehistoric  human, that human would have to look like it  

  • was mean and big. To look a little biggerthe hairs in its coat would stand on end

  • That all makes sense, but how come we can have  goosebumps when our favorite team scores a goal,  

  • or someone is merely thinking about  a moment in their life that made them  

  • very happy? Why do people's arms look  like a plucked chicken when they hear an  

  • amazing rendition of the Star-Spangled Banner? Well, even though these are positive feelings,  

  • the brain still sends a message to the adrenal  glands so more of the hormone called adrenaline  

  • is released. The situation might not be stressful  for the person, but all the same the excitement  

  • can be so much that goosebumps happen. This influx  of adrenaline might also lead to someone getting  

  • sweaty palms, feel butterflies in their stomachor feel a shiver down their spine. Another effect  

  • is that the bowels loosen due to the adrenaline  rush. How many of you have suddenly needed to pee  

  • right before you walked into a boxing ring, or got  up on stage? You can thank adrenaline for that

  • It's not clearly understood in terms of evolution  why sweaty palms, akaPalmar Hyperhidrosis”,  

  • happens due to fear or excitement. One theory is  it produced friction on the hands of our forebears  

  • and that was good when fighting...or flighting. As for butterflies in the stomach, this is related  

  • to blood being redirected from the gut so the  arms and legs have more. That's what you need when  

  • you're faced with a difficult task. This lack of  blood affects muscles and blood flow in the gut,  

  • and this slows down digestion. This can create  a feeling of butterflies flying around in there

  • Then you have shivering down the spine when  you think about something, see something,  

  • or listen to the crescendo of a song. We are  all wired differently in this respect of course,  

  • and what gets Harry off won't work for Sallybut the reason is the same. Sometimes called  

  • a “frissonor a “skin orgasm”, it's related  to nerves that connect parts of the brain that  

  • process emotions. This can produce what's  called an aesthetic response, which can  

  • release that wonderful chemical known as dopamine. Adrenaline is also the reason we blush at times,  

  • what Charles Darwin once called, “The most  peculiar and most human of all expressions.”  

  • This happens when adrenaline causes  capillaries in the face to widen

  • Blushing sucks, so why did we evolve to do it? The likely reason is it communicates something  

  • to another person, whether you like it or  not. What it communicates exactly is complex.  

  • You can blush when you are humbled, are  embarrassed, or are given a wonderful compliment.  

  • Some people hate it and have a profound fear of  turning red, something callederythrophobia”.  

  • It might feel uncomfortable for all you chronic  blushers, but you should know that it usually  

  • elicits a positive response from others. Now you have to ask yourself, how did those  

  • early humans react when they lost a person close  to them? Did they cry as humans do nowadays

  • We can't say for sure, but scientists believe they  did cry because that was a way of communicating  

  • how sad they could get. The tears showed that the  person had some empathy, and in turn this could  

  • create closer communities. One scientist said  that there's a possibility that those ancestors  

  • of ours that displayed a good old cry now and  again were good survivors. Not weak, but strong

  • But why do some humans cry when as kids they found  out that Bambi's mom had bit the dust? Why can  

  • some people cry over really trifling mattersWhy do some people hardly ever cry at all

  • Well, like our ancestors, one of the reasons for  crying is social cohesion and letting other people  

  • know you have some empathy. Then there's painand like some other animals, humans can cry when  

  • feeling significant physical pain. There's  also the reason babies and politicians on  

  • Twitter do a lot of crying, and that's to get  attention when they want something. After all,  

  • when you come into this world, you are  pretty much useless, unlike some animals  

  • that can take care of themselves pretty fast. Emotional tears, whether tears of joy or tears of  

  • sadness are more of a complex issue and something  that scientists haven't always seen eye-to-eye on

  • There's the theory we have pointed out, that  tears are there, whether you're happy or sad,  

  • so others can make a connection with you. Sureyou might cry alone, but that's just a byproduct  

  • of what nature has programmed you to do. There's  also another theory that says because sad tears  

  • have more protein, they stick better to the  cheeks, and that makes them more noticeable

  • Other tears of course trickle out when you have  something in your eye or you are chopping onions.  

  • These are called reflex tears. You also  have basal tears, which keep your eyes  

  • moist. Then you have psychic tears, the one we are  concentrating on now. Yet again it's the brain's  

  • hypothalamus that is responsible for creating  these tears when you are confronted by intense  

  • emotional situations, such as when an  animated deer gets taken out by a hunter

  • There's also a rather more cynical side to  crying. As babies, you realize that crying  

  • gets you what you want, so people might cry  as adults to get what they want. Maybe you  

  • think you'd never do that, but the crying  doesn't have to be a conscious thing. It  

  • can be involuntary even though it's selfish. This crying might get you some approval from  

  • another person, but the act of crying itself  can release the feel-good chemical endorphins.  

  • That's one reason some people feel a lot better  after a good cry. This isn't always the case,  

  • though, because some studies have shown  that people can feel a lot worse after  

  • crying. It all depends on the situation and  whether someone felt relief or catharsis

  • As for people who cry a lot, they might just  be of a more empathic character, or they could  

  • even score high on the neuroticism scale, or they  might have grown up in an environment where crying  

  • is normal and encouraged. A study in Germany  found that people that hardly ever cried were  

  • more distant in terms of their feelings. They  also might carry a lot of negative emotions  

  • around with them, such as bitterness or rage. As for laughter, the main reason we do that is  

  • also to let others know how we feel. When  you meet someone and interact with them,  

  • laughter can be a way of letting that  person know how you feel, whereas  

  • awkward laughter or no laughter at all might let  someone gauge that you are not very impressed

  • Not only that, but when you laugh  a lot endorphins can be released,  

  • and this can reduce stress and create feelings of  wellbeing. This is good for your immune system.  

  • Some evolutionary biologists think laughter goes  back to how our ancestors groomed each other,  

  • since it can oil the cogs of a relationshipOthers believe laughter evolved from noises we  

  • made as primates when we played. That's  impulsive, and uncontrolled laughter,  

  • but more controlled laughter might  relate to getting your point across

  • As for what qualifies as funny, that's a very  long story and not something we'll get into today

  • Let's instead look at some other  strange things that happen to your body

  • You've all at some point in your life  gotten out of the bathtub and looked  

  • at fingers and toes that look like they  belong to a 110-year old. The thing is,  

  • it only happens to those parts of your body. Why? It's a bit more complicated than water causing a  

  • biochemical reaction and is actually down to the  sympathetic nervous system, that part of the brain  

  • that makes your body do things without letting  you in on it. We know this because scientists have  

  • cut certain nerves in the fingers and toes and the  wrinkling effect didn't happen. Your skin wouldn't  

  • wrinkle if your brain wasn't telling it to. One theory is that when wrinkled we have a really  

  • good grip. Imagine trying to pick something up  with wet hands, something small and slippery.  

  • It would be hard, but perhaps not  when you have your old person's grip

  • We don't know for sure if this is the  main reason why we wrinkle in water,  

  • but studies have shown that wrinkled fingers could  indeed help humans manipulate certain objects.  

  • During tests, people with wrinkled fingers  were asked to move marbles from one place  

  • to another place. Some marbles were dry  and others were wet. With the dry marbles,  

  • there wasn't any difference, but humans with  wrinkled fingers were better at moving wet marbles  

  • than humans with normal fingers. That was only one study, though.  

  • A later study found there was no differenceStill, some scientists believe our wrinkling  

  • function evolved as a way to manipulate things  and possibly climb trees. It might not help us  

  • modern humans grip much better, but it could have  been a lifesaver for our long lost relatives

  • Now you need to watch, “What Would Happen  To Your Body If You Lived In the Ocean.” Or,  

  • have a look at, “I Did 30 Push-Ups For 30 Days  And This Is What Happened - Funny Challenge.”

A man is braced to go outside on the coldest  day on record in years. Snow is falling and  

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Why Do We Shake When We Are Cold

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    林宜悉 posted on 2021/02/21
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