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  • Doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo.

  • Paying attention every time I read a book.

  • Hi. James from engVid.

  • I had a question from a great student of mine; I'm just going to put his name up here.

  • So, Mauricio, my A/V guy.

  • When I teach...

  • Hey, I'll say A/C. He's my A/V guy.

  • He always helps me with the audio/visual.

  • Thanks, Mauricio.

  • He's from Mexico, and I appreciate the work you've done with me.

  • So, anyway, this is...

  • This video is for Mauricio.

  • One day he asked me: "What's the difference between 'each' and 'every'?"

  • They seem...

  • It seems quite simple, but there are little differences that even a native speaker may

  • not be able to express to you because it's so natural for us that we know, but we don't

  • know how to actually say.

  • So, let's go to the board and take a look.

  • So, as you can see with Mr. E, he said: "Each", and he's talking about his hands, here; and

  • "whole", within his body.

  • Now, he didn't say: "all body", but "whole body" or "entire", and let's go to the board

  • and find out why.

  • Now, one of the first things we're going to look at is...

  • Well, where are we?

  • Let's talk about the big Pac.

  • If you look, we've got Pac-Man over here, so it's like a pizza with a slice taken out

  • of it.

  • So, this is a piece, and this is the whole thing.

  • When we talk about the word "whole", we talk about the complete unit, so we're talking

  • about all of this.

  • I used the word "all".

  • We talk about it as a unit; we're not breaking it into pieces; we see it as one thing.

  • So, we talk about 100%, and we use it for countable nouns: "The whole apple", "the whole

  • pizza", "the whole room".

  • We see it as one thing.

  • We use another word, to be a little bit more formal you might say in English, and we go

  • with the word "entire": "The entire room", "the entire apple".

  • We can use it for an exclamation or to formalize it.

  • It is the same meaning as "whole", but a formal one.

  • So, you can imagine me wearing a jacket and a tie, being formal; or like this, this would

  • be "whole".

  • And if I was wearing my tie and jacket-I wish I had one now-that would be "entire".

  • So, we talked about the 100% is for countable nouns, and we talk about the whole unit.

  • So, I said countable nouns, and you might be thinking: "Hey, great.

  • But what happens if I have things, like water or salt?

  • Things that cannot be counted?

  • Or money?"

  • That's when we talk about or we use "all".

  • "All" does almost the same thing as "whole" or "entire"; it talks about things as a unit,

  • but we get to use this extra power of the uncountable: "All of the water in the room",

  • "all of the salt", "all of the money".

  • Right?

  • Then we can say: "All of the people".

  • "People" are countable, so it's a very flexible use.

  • Right?

  • So this is more common.

  • But when you want to make your language a little bit more interesting, we use "whole";

  • but "whole" would be for the countable, while "all" could be used for almost anything.

  • All right?

  • So, if you notice, I've gone from the circle of going one, two, and we've talked about

  • this whole thing or the entire thing.

  • What happened to...?

  • What happens when you want to talk about pieces of a thing?

  • I'm a human being.

  • I have arms, I have...

  • Well, legs.

  • I have ears and eyes.

  • My whole body is all of these things together, but I have different parts to this or of my

  • body.

  • We're going to look at two other words: "every" and "each", and talk about: "Why would we

  • say 'every' sometimes and 'each'?

  • What's the difference?"

  • Just as in "all" and "whole", there is a difference, there's a difference in usage for these things.

  • So, let's start with "every".

  • Every time I think of you, I always catch my breath.

  • Now, when I was saying that: "Every time I think of you", I am talking about a group

  • of things, but in this case I'm not just talking about it as one unit; I'm talking about parts

  • of it.

  • Okay?

  • So, I'm talking about things in a group that are similar; there's a similarity to them.

  • "My thoughts are similar."

  • They're not different thoughts; they're almost exactly the same.

  • "Every time I think of you", each thought is done; and if you notice, the squares are

  • all about the same.

  • So it's the same type of thought.

  • So, I focus on the group, but I focus on the similarity of the things.

  • That's why we usually say: "Everyone in the room".

  • I'm not looking at them as people; individuals.

  • I see a group of people and I say: "They're all people".

  • "Everything I have".

  • I don't see them as individual things; I see them as things.

  • Yeah?

  • Got it somewhere?

  • "Everywhere you go", "everywhere", they're all places you go.

  • I don't care if they're countries, or cities, or houses; they're still places you go to.

  • And that's what we're looking at: The similarity between these things.

  • The similarity between these countable things; these things must be countable.

  • You notice I said: "Everyone", "everything".

  • I didn't say: "Every money", I didn't say: "Every water".

  • I can talk about it if I change "water" in a different fashion, but these are for countable

  • things when we say: "every".

  • Okay?

  • The next one we want to talk about is "each".

  • Once again, it's for countable things; but unlike "every" which talks about everything

  • being similar, look carefully: I've taken these same blocks and they're in a row, so

  • they are a group, but there's a fat one, a skinny one...

  • See, a skinny one, a tall one, a short one in the grouping.

  • It's still countable things: "each", because I have to count the parts in the whole, but

  • right now it's the individual parts that make it up.

  • I care about the differences.

  • If I were to make a speech to you and I said: "Everyone in the room today believes money

  • is important", I don't care about each individual; what I care about is the group; the collective:

  • "every".

  • When I say: "Each one of you cares about money", I am recognizing that each individual is not

  • the same.

  • A person with five cars is different than a person who has no shoes, and in saying:

  • "each of you", I'm trying to get it across to my audience that I know that you're all

  • different.

  • When I say: "Each time I sing a song", I'm saying: Each time is different to me; it's

  • special to me.

  • Each one is a different...

  • I don't want to say "manifestation".

  • Oh, I said it; too late.

  • "Manifest" is to bring forth or bring alive.

  • Each thing I do is different.

  • Okay?

  • So, we want to look at the uniqueness of a thing.

  • Pretty cool, huh?

  • So, I think...

  • Let's just go through this.

  • And it's in a circular fashion, so we'll do it again.

  • We talk about "whole", we talk about the complete unit, and we're talking about just countable

  • objects.

  • We talk about "entire", well, it's the same thing as the whole; it's 100%, but we want

  • to use it for formal or we want to use it for exclamation.

  • "You ate the entire pizza?" is stronger than: "You ate the whole pizza"?

  • "You ate the entire pizza?"

  • Right?

  • Even with: "ire".

  • Funny, in English, "ire" means angry, so it's like putting more passion in the word.

  • Right?

  • "The entire room rose."

  • Okay?

  • Then we move over to there, "all", which seems, like, less formal.

  • It's like, you know, your McDonald's in the neighbourhood.

  • Doo-doo-doo-doo-doo; it's good for everything.

  • So, it's countable as well, but...

  • And it...

  • And it also takes on the uncountable nouns.

  • So it's a little bit more general, like a hammer; it can be used for everything.

  • Then we move over to "every".

  • "Every" is in the same kind of idea, the same kind of pattern.

  • All of the things in this group, we're talking about the small parts of it, but we're saying

  • they're all kind of similar.

  • But they are parts in a group and we understand that there are parts in this group; it's not,

  • like, my body isn't just: Blah; it's got arms, legs that make it up.

  • But in this case we're saying they're all similar; have the same value.

  • And then, finally, we go to "each", where we go: "Hey, hold on a second.

  • An arm doesn't have the same value as a leg.

  • Yes, there are parts, but each part is individual", and we have to kind of understand that.

  • Cool?

  • All right, good.

  • Well, you know what time it is.

  • It's time for us to go to the board, because I know you say you understand it or at least

  • I think you do, I hope you do, but let's test it.

  • Are you ready?

  • [Snaps]

  • All right, so we're back.

  • So, usually I have a bonus.

  • Today I won't do that because I think the lesson is pretty direct.

  • But I will ask you to help me do something, which is: Correct my mistakes.

  • Okay?

  • So, on the board we've got a tale of two stories or a tale of two cities.

  • The first thing I'd like to do is: Before you can help me correct it, because I didn't

  • learn the lesson as well as you did-I mean, I think you're a good student-I want you to

  • help me identify what the mistakes are so we can actually correct it and make it a better

  • story down there.

  • Are you ready?

  • Let's go to the board.

  • So: "I go to McDonald's every of the time"... "...every of the time"?

  • Hmm, that just sounds suspicious, don't you think?

  • So, let's look here; I think that's a problem.

  • "...to get dinner".

  • Okay?

  • "My favourite thing is the kids' meal."

  • Okay, that sounds okay.

  • "My favourite thing is the kids' meal.

  • I can eat the each thing in two minutes."

  • Huh, that seems weird to me.

  • I mean, I don't know why it's wrong; you guys can probably help me with that later on, but

  • that just doesn't seem right.

  • "Whole meal comes with a toy to play with".

  • "Whole meal comes"?

  • Hmm.

  • Geez, this is horrible.

  • Sure glad you guys are here to help out.

  • What's the next thing?

  • "The toys are all different."

  • Okay.

  • "The toys are all different."

  • Okay.

  • "All one of them has its own number."

  • Yeah, huh. "...its own special number".

  • Now, let's see.

  • I've identified four of these things.

  • Perhaps we can go through what we talked about to see if we...

  • What reasons it might be wrong, and then we can put these corrections down here.

  • So, let's go to the board.

  • "I go to McDonald's of the time".

  • Well, I know...

  • I probably didn't mention it before, but when we talk about "all", we talk about...

  • Okay, "of the time", we...

  • Let's put it this way.

  • I didn't mention "of", but usually when we talk about "all", we usually have "of": "all

  • of the money", "all of the time", "all of the people".

  • "Of" means a part or a part of something.

  • So, when I say: "One of you guys", it's one part of a larger group.

  • Okay?

  • "Each student in Canada", well, there's a student and there's Canada, and there's lots

  • of students in Canada, so it's one part of it, right?

  • So, "all"...

  • When we say "all of something", we're talking about "all" represents the whole group.

  • Remember we talked about that, and we used it for countable and non-countable?

  • Now, time, can you count time?

  • We can talk about segments of time, like: One hour, one time; but time, there's too

  • much to count.

  • Infinity cannot be counted, so then we have to talk about time as in "all", right?

  • Because we didn't say: "each".

  • We weren't talking about each...

  • Each...

  • Each thing we're doing.

  • So we're going to say: "Okay, it has to be a big thing."

  • We know that we can't use "entire" and "whole" because they're for countables, but we can

  • use "all" for this, so I think this will help us here.

  • So I think this is correct, but that's wrong.

  • Now, what about this one?

  • "I can eat the each thing".

  • Hmm.

  • "I can eat the each thing in two minutes.

  • I can eat the each thing".

  • Well, it seems like we're talking about one thing because "the" is an