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  • When you make a pact, do you keep it? Today we're  learning English with TV. Thanks to the series,  

  • Friends. It's December and a New  Year's Eve pact has been made

  • You're going to break the pactShe's going to break the pact

  • No. No. No. No. No. No. Does she?  

  • We're going to do an in-depth analysis of  this scene from Friends to study the rhythm,  

  • linking, and reductions. All the things that make  American English sound American. You're going to  

  • improve your listening comprehension and learn  an idiom, a different way to use the word 'snap'. 

  • I make new videos every Tuesday to help you  speak faster and more natural English, you'll  

  • even be able to watch TV without subtitles. If  you like this video or you learned something new,  

  • please give it a thumbs up and subscribe with  notifications, I'd love to see you back here

  • Last week, we studied a clip where  they made a pact for New Year's. 

  • I say this year, no dates. We make  a pact, just the six of us, dinner

  • In today's scene, that pact starts to  fall apart. First, we'll watch the scene,  

  • then we'll do an in-depth analysis. I just want to be with him all the  

  • time. You know? Day and night, and  night and day, and special occasions

  • Wait a minute. Wait, I see where this is  going. You're going to ask him the New Year's,  

  • aren't you? You're going to break the  pact. She's going to break the pact

  • No. No. No. No. No. No. Yeah, could I just

  • Yeah, 'cause I already asked Janice. Come on! This was a pact! This was your pact

  • I snapped, okay? I couldn't  handle the pressure and I snapped

  • Yep, but Janice, that was like  the worst breakup in history

  • I'm not saying it was a good  idea. I'm saying I snapped.  

  • In a moment, we'll do the analysis. First, I want  to make sure you know in January, on this channel,  

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  • One video every day for 30 days starting the first  Tuesday in January. Click here or in the video  

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  • this January. Now, let's do that analysis.

  • I just want to be with him all the time

  • What do you think is the most  stressed word in that sentence

  • I just want to be with him all the time.

  • I'm feeling the most stressed word to be 'all'.  

  • I just want to be with him all the time. Now we  do have some other words that have some stress.  

  • I would say I, she's stressing herself and this is  her boyfriend she's talking about. I just want to  

  • be with him, be with him, a little bit of stress  there, all the time, and some stress on time, but  

  • I think all has the most. I just want to be with  him. Let's look at these words, all of the words  

  • leading up to our peak of stress for the sentenceall. Let's just listen to those words together

  • I just want to be with him..

  • I just want to be with him, I just want to be  with him, I just want to be with him. Said pretty  

  • quickly and everything links together, doesn't it? Let's talk about that linking, that's so natural  

  • in American English. I just want to-- just want  to-- She drops the T in just, it's very common  

  • when we have an ending cluster like ST or CT and  the next word begins with a consonant, it's very  

  • common to drop that T, and that's what she does  here, the S right into the W. Now she doesn't say  

  • 'want to' she says that very common reduction  'wanna'. Now if you're wondering what vowels  

  • should I put in there, you have a couple options.  I would say UH as in butter, wuh, wuh, wanna,  

  • would be the best choice for that  first syllable. I just want to-- and  

  • then the final syllable should be the  schwa. I just want to, I just want to.

  • I just want to,

  • be with him.

  • Be with him, be with him, be with him. So for  the word with, that's the unvoiced TH and the  

  • word him, it's very common to drop the H thereBe with him. Be with him. But I do hear that she  

  • is saying the H, it's just unstressed, it's said  quickly. For this unvoiced TH, you can actually  

  • see her tongue tip does come through, it's a  little bit grainy but we can see the tongue.  

  • Be with him..

  • all the time

  • All the time, all the time. So the word allwe have a dark L there. You don't need to lift  

  • your tongue tip, it's not: all, all. But alluhl, uhl. That sound is made with the tongue  

  • tip down and the back part of the tongue  pressing down and back. All, uhl, uhl.  

  • Then just go into your TH sound for the  word 'the'. Do not lift your tongue tip. All  

  • the, the, the, the. An unstressed word like this  that begins with the voiced TH, you don't need to  

  • bring your tongue tip through like you did for the  unvoiced TH. Unvoiced TH have to bring your tongue  

  • tip through, voiced TH, you don't necessarily  have to. And if it's an unstressed word like the,  

  • then you can get away with not bringing the tip  all the way through, but just touching the tongue  

  • to the backs of the teeth. The, the, the, the. The  tongue might show through the cracks a little bit,  

  • but you don't have to make the effort to put the  tongue tip through. That takes a little bit more  

  • time than we want for this unstressed word, so  make sure it's not dd-- with the tongue tip at  

  • the roof of the mouth coming down but: the, thethe, the, the, the tongue poking straight forward  

  • and coming back. The, the, the, the, all theall the, all the, all the, all the, all the time.

  • All the time.

  • And the word 'time' starts with the true T,  

  • then we have the AI diphthong, and  the M consonant. Time, time, time.

  • Time.

  • You know?

  • You know? You know? You know? You know?  

  • This can be said really quickly and unclearlylike she does. The word 'you' reduces to:  

  • ye, ye, ye, ye. You know? You know? You knowPitch goes up, it's a yes no question, even though  

  • she's not expecting anyone to answer it. You  know? You know? You know? See how quickly and  

  • sloppily you can make that, it's not: You know?  

  • Way less mouth movement than that. You knowYou know? Try to simplify your mouth movements.

  • You know?

  • Day and night.

  • Two stressed words with an  unstressed word in between. Day  

  • and night. Stop T at the end, that's  because it's the end of the thought group,  

  • the word 'and' is not pronounced, and, withfull AA vowel, N, D sound. How is it pronounced?

  • Day and night.

  • And, and, and, and, and very quickly, the D is  dropped. I don't think the vowel reduces. It's not nn, nn.

  • day and-- day and night, but it's day and, andand, and, and, day and night, and, and, and.  

  • Day and night,

  • and night and day.

  • Now here she does reduce the vowel in the word  'and' so she doesn't say an-- but she says nn, nn, nn, nn, nn.  

  • And I would write that schwa N, and  night and day. Now here she does do  

  • again a more clear pronunciation. The  D is dropped but it is the AA vowel,  

  • so there are a couple different  ways you can reduce the word and,  

  • you can reduce it by dropping the D, which  she does here, and here, or you can reduce  

  • it by dropping the D and reducing the vowelwhich is what she does in the middle one.

  • And night and day,

  • And night and day, and night and day. So more reduced the first time,  

  • less reduced the second time in this sentence  fragment. And she does do another stop T here,  

  • she doesn't link them together with  a flapped T. And night and day.

  • And night and day...

  • and special occasions.

  • Special occasions. And, and, and, and, again said  quickly but without the vowel reduction. That  

  • would be: and, and, but she says: and, andand, and, and. So a lot of examples here of  

  • the and reduction, and most of the time you will  hear the vowel reduced but not always of course.

  • And special occasions.

  • And special, first syllable stress thereAnd special occasions. So the word occasions,  

  • in IPA, that first syllable is a schwaShe gives it more of an OH pronunciation,  

  • that's not the pronunciation of the word but this  does sometimes happen with beginning syllables,  

  • when they're vowels, and they're unstressedsometimes Americans will over pronounce them  

  • a little bit, like in this case occasionsit's not occasions, it's occasions, occasions.

  • Occasions.

  • I've noticed  this also with the word effect. The first syllable

  • unstressed is the IH vowel but sometimes  Americans will say effect, switching out  

  • the vowel sound. So the pronunciation, the only  pronunciation listed in the dictionary is IH here  

  • and schwa here, but sometimes native speakers  do switch that out. Anyway, the important thing  

  • to know is that she says occasions but  it's actually occasions with the schwa.

  • Occasions..

  • Special, CI here makes the SH sound. Special. Now  here we have a dark L but it links into a vowel,  

  • so you can lift your tongue tip there to help  link them together. Special occasions. And here  

  • the letter S along with the letter I makes the  zsh-- sound like in measure. Special occasions.

  • Special occasions.

  • Wait a minute. Wait.

  • Wait a minute. Wait. Wait a minute. Wait. Both  times they have that up down shape of stress.  

  • Wait a minute. Wait and the  words a in a minute come in here  

  • on the downward shape of  the stress. Wait a minute.

  • Wait a minute.

  • The T in wait is a flap T linking the word  wait into the schwa. Wait a, Wait a, Wait a-- 

  • Wait a minute. Stop T because the  next word begins with a consonant.

  • Wait a minute.

  • Wait, I--

  • Wait a minute. Wait, I-- Wait, I-- He also does  a flap T linking the T into the AI diphthong.  

  • And just like he did in last week's video he's  running his sentences together with no breaks.

  • Wait, I--

  • Wait, I-- Wait, I-- So both of  

  • those words have that stress feeling with  that up down shape. Wait, I-- Wait, I--

  • Wait, I--

  • see where this is going.

  • And again, we have some of the up down  shape on 'see'. Wait, I see where this is  

  • going. And then some up down shape on the stress  syllable of going. I see, I see where this is,  

  • where this is, where this is, where this, is where  this is. These three words, a little bit flatter  

  • and they really link together, don't they? Where  this is, where this is, where this is, where this  

  • is. The word this begins with that voiced THthis, but because it's in an unstressed word,  

  • we're not going to bring the tongue tip throughwe're not going to make that much of that sound.  

  • It can just quickly touch the backs of the teeth  where this, where this, where this, where this,  

  • where this, where this, where this, where thiswhere this is, where this is, where this is going.  

  • Simplifying that mouth movement  will let us say it more quickly.  

  • Where this, the R sound right into the TH, thesound of this linking right into the vowel, IH of  

  • is. This is, this is, this is, this is, this is.

  • Where this is--

  • I see where this is going. You're going to-- Again, no break between sentences,  

  • he just keeps right on going, linking words  together, energy of the voice going forward.

  • I see where this is going. You're going to-- 

  • ask him to New Years, aren't you?

  • You're going to ask him to New  Years, You're going to ask him-- 

  • A little bit on 'you're'.  You're going to ask them to New  

  • Year's, compound word, the most stress will  happen on the first word, new, New Year's.

  • You're going to ask him to New Years--

  • And actually, this should have an apostrophe  here. It's short for New Year's eve,  

  • the night before New Year's day. So you are  going to ask him to New Year's, becomes:

  • You're going to ask him to New Years,  

  • You are becomes you're, you're, you're, you'reyou're, just the Y sound and then the R sound:  

  • you're, you're, you're going to, going togoing to, of course becomes gonna, such a common  

  • reduction. You're going to ask him-- and that  schwa links right into the a vowel very smoothly.  

  • Gonna ask him-- Now what's  happening here with ask and him?

  • Ask him--

  • Ask him-- ask him-- ask him-- ask him--

  • The H is dropped, the K links lightly into the  

  • him reduction. You can think of that  as being an IH vowel M or schwa M,  

  • doesn't matter. It's said very quickly. Ask him--  ask him-- ask him to-- ask him to-- ask him to--

  • What happens to the word to?

  • Ask him to--

  • It also gets a reduction. That T becomes  a flap T. Ask him to-- rarararrarara--

  • And the vowel of OO reduces to the  schwa. Ask him to-- ask him to--

  • Ask him to--

  • New Years, aren't you?

  • Aren't you. How does he pronounce that?

  • Aren't you?

  • Aren't you? Aren't you? Aren't you?

  • What? He's getting is CH? Yes. That  happens with the NT contraction,  

  • or really any word that ends in T when the  next word is you or your, that can become a CH.

  • Aren't you?

  • Aren't, aren't, we can write that with the  AH as in father vowel like in car, the AW,  

  • R combination. Car, rrrrr-- aren't you? Then the  CH sound, ch--, and the schwa. Aren't you? Aren't  

  • you? Aren't you? Stress on the first syllable  there, on the first vowel R, are-- aren't you?

  • Aren't you?

  • And You know The Z sound of New Year's? You  can link that into the vowel. New Year's,  

  • aren't you? New Year's, aren't you? New  Year's, aren't you? To help smooth that out.

  • New Year's, aren't you?

  • You're going to break the pactShe's going to break the pact.

  • Again, two syllables, no break whatsoeverthis is part of Chandler's character.  

  • No breaks, no stopping when speakingLet's look at the first sentence.

  • You're going to break the pact.

  • You're going to, you're going to, so the vowel  reduces, but it still has a stressed feel. You're,  

  • you're, when I write that reduction, I write  it with schwa R, but when it's stressed,  

  • it has a feel like the UR as in  bird vowel R. You're, you're,  

  • you're going to break the pact. Three stressed  words there, going to of course becomes gonna.  

  • Listen to that audio three timesthink about how smooth that is.

  • You're going to break the pact.

  • And the word 'the' remember that voiced TH on  an unstressed word. You don't need to try to  

  • bring your tongue tip through, but try to  keep it away from the roof of the mouth,  

  • we don't want it to go up and releasethat will sound like a D, dd--  

  • try to make it: the, the, the, the, thelightly touching the backs of the teeth,  

  • and the teeth can be slightly partedThe, the, the, the, break the pact.

  • Break the pact.

  • Break the, break the. Notice it's not  break the. That K is not released,  

  • it's a stop consonant so he puts  his tongue into position for the K,  

  • back of the tongue against the soft palate, break  the. But then rather than releasing the air,  

  • he releases right into the next sound. Break  the, break the, break the, break the pact.

  • Now pact. We have an ending cluster.  

  • He does not put a break, so it links into the next  word, that is a consonant, that T gets dropped.

  • Break the pact.

  • Pact she-- pact she-- pact she--  So he completely drops the T.

  • Break the pact. She--

  • She's gonna break the pact.

  • She's going to break the pact. She's going to  break-- again, a stop K not released. Break the  

  • pact. Now let's see here, it's  the end of a thought group,  

  • he's not linking in. Does he make a T sound there?

  • She's going to break the pact

  • I don't hear it. Pact is all I hear. Break  the pact. I don't even really hear a release.  

  • So that's a little unusual, it should  be pact, most commonly I would say,  

  • when it's at the end of a thought group. But he's  just dropped the T, and so he drops it here too.  

  • And of course again 'going to' much more natural  in spoken English to say 'gonna' I wouldn't ever  

  • recommend writing the word gonna, even if it's in  something casual like a text. Definitely people  

  • do it but I would say when you're writing, just  write 'going to' because there are definitely  

  • cases where writing 'gonna'