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  • the following 10 rules, which are based on decades of research aimed to demonstrate that the standard way to teach Children math is counterproductive because it focuses on symbols.

  • To be able to think mathematically, however, means not to think in symbols but to learn to think in relationships.

  • Math can't be taught, just like we can't learn ping pong from watching videos.

  • Children can't learn math from reading textbooks or listening to a teacher.

  • Instead, they learn math by doing math, ideally with riel objects, because only when they do math relationships are constructed right where math happens in their heads.

  • It happens in the head.

  • Whatever is on paper is merely a representation of mathematical thinking that happens in the brain just like musical notes.

  • What is on paper is just a representation of music that actually happens when someone plays the piano.

  • To be a good musician, it's not enough to be able to read the notes.

  • We also need to practice a lot.

  • The same is true for math, which is why practicing mental arithmetic is so important.

  • Math needs years of practice.

  • This becomes clear when we look at how Children learn to understand a number, say eight, not the symbol eight, but the idea of the quantity of eight to internalize this seemingly simple idea, Children need a lot of practice in two skills.

  • First, they need to learn how to create order and then, later on how to create hierarchical relationships.

  • Let's look a order first, but construct order when four year olds learn to count.

  • Most have trouble ordering objects in their heads.

  • If the things they count are unevenly distributed, sometimes they skip objects.

  • Then they count the same ones twice.

  • To do it right, Children have to learn how to construct order in their heads.

  • This seems easy, but actually takes our brains a lot of practice.

  • Once Children learn to water objects in their heads, they can put them in relationships, hierarchical relationships.

  • As Children construct order, they count the objects as follows.

  • 1234567 and eight.

  • As they do that, the number eight represents the eighth place in the order.

  • In other words, eight always includes 1234567 The idea of eight is therefore a hierarchical relationship between the eighth object and all those preceding it.

  • If we don't learn to do this sort of abstraction by doing lots of math in our heads.

  • We won't be able to form a solid foundation for arithmetic after building them.

  • Children need to learn to break relationships apart again.

  • We can see how hard this is when we present a five year old an image of six dogs and two cats, and then ask, Are there more dogs, orm or animals?

  • While most adults who see the full picture find this question odd, a five year old typically just answers MAWR dogs when you ask further more dogs than what the child replies than cats.

  • In other words, if you ask other Mawr dogs, orm or animals, the child hears other mawr dogs, orm or cats.

  • At age five, most kids didn't practice enough math to break hierarchical relationships apart while still remembering the whole.

  • This happens because once the child has to cut the hole into parts for them at that moment, the whole no longer exists.

  • They have not yet constructed the concept of eight without thinking of it as a sum of its parts.

  • So when they divide the animals into cats and dogs, all they can think off our two parts, of which one looks larger.

  • The idea of eight is then for gotten to also think about all animals would require two opposite mental actions.

  • First, divide the whole and then put it back together.

  • A mental process that most five year old Children precisely can't do only by age seven.

  • Most Children can see the whole and keep its abstraction in their heads and still divide the some in its parts.

  • Experiences proceeds language as we demonstrated.

  • It takes a child a lot of mental training, aunt hands on experiences to form the concept of a number.

  • At the age of five, we can build a simple row of eight later form eight square, then eight route Only.

  • Once we have constructed number concepts inside our heads, can we effectively learn how to express them with images, symbols and language.

  • Math can be expressed in different languages.

  • Ah, 100,000 years ago, we used objects to express our mathematical thinking.

  • Later, we used images.

  • Around 1000 years ago, we began to reduce images to Arabic numeral symbols.

  • In future, we might replace symbols with bits or express math in graphic simulations or games In other words, while math thinking always happens in our heads, the language that represents our thinking is evolving.

  • But most people don't have math but language problems.

  • We know, for example, that 11 year old unschooled street vendors are often highly proficient in complex money transactions but incapable of doing paper and pencil arithmetic.

  • This phenomenon, known as ST Mathematics, shows that when smart kids struggling school, they often just can't express their thinking in symbols.

  • Their brains conduce math but have language problems.

  • One way to solve this is to do it your way, just like nobody ever learned to speak a language just by learning the rules of grammar.

  • Nobody learns math by memorizing the rules of how to arrange numbers in symbols in order to find the right answer to a problem.

  • Whenever we do that, we stopped constructing fundamental principles inside our heads to get better and confident.

  • Children should be encouraged to find their own path and use their own language to express a solution.

  • Which brings us back to rule one.

  • Math can't be taught.

  • It has to be constructed.

  • If we want to learn math, we have to do math in our heads, ideally with riel life experiences.

  • Later, we replace the objects with abstractions such as language, symbols or whatever the future might bring.

  • Three ideas presented in this video are based on the work of Jean Piaget, a Constance Comey, Keith Devlin, Georgia to Clark and Jerome Bruner, who all contributed immensely to the body of work and research on how Children and adults learn math.

  • If you want to get better at math today, join Keith Devlin from Stanford University and over 100,000 students from all around the world in Hiss free course on thinking mathematically.

  • See the descriptions below for more details and links for the research sprouts videos are published under the Creative Commons license.

  • That means our videos are free and anyone can download, edit and play them for personal use and public schools, governments and nonprofit organizations can also use them for training online courses or designing new curriculums.

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the following 10 rules, which are based on decades of research aimed to demonstrate that the standard way to teach Children math is counterproductive because it focuses on symbols.

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A2 math language express arithmetic thinking practice

10 Things Science Knows About Learning Math

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/11/30
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