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  • Today we're continuing studying English with the Friends Christmas episode where Rachel quits her job.

  • Now, last week on our video she quit her job.

  • This week she's just had a job interview and she's talking about it.

  • We're going to use this scene to study American English pronunciation

  • and figure out what makes American English sound American.

  • Here's the scene we'll study today.

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Ugh. I blew it. I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • Oh. Come here, sweetie. Listen. You're going to go on, like, a thousand interviews before you get a job.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • It's just the worst Christmas ever.

  • You know what, Rach, maybe you should just, you know, stay here at the coffee house.

  • I can't. It's too late. Terry already hired that girl over there.

  • Look at her, she's even got waitress experience. Ugh.

  • And now the analysis.

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Chandler starts out up down shape of stress hey, hey, uh, uh. Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • His H is not very clear or loud here hey, hey, hey.

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • Hey. How'd the interview go?

  • How'd the interview go?

  • The stressed syllable of interview is the most stressed syllable in that whole thought group,

  • how'd the and the first two words lead up to that peak. How'd the interview go,

  • and the last three syllables come away from that peak.

  • Now, are you noticing how that T is pronounced? Interview, it's totally dropped.

  • It's fairly common to drop the T when it comes after N like an interview, internet, international.

  • How'd the interview go?

  • How'd the interview go?

  • How'd the interview go?

  • The apostrophe D here is the word did.

  • We can also do would, how'd you do that, how would you do that but in this case it's did, how'd, how'd, how'd.

  • Just a D sound at the end: how'd the.

  • Now, we don't release the D. We have the OW, diphthong OW and D voiced TH. How'd the--

  • So the D is subtle. The tongue is in position, the vocal chords make the noise but then

  • the transition goes quickly into the voiced TH, how the, how the--

  • and Chandler does say the E as in she vowel for the word the instead of the.

  • That's because the next word begins with a vowel or diphthong and that is the rule.

  • If the next word begins with a vowel or diphthong the final sound of this word is the E as in she vowel

  • however I have noticed Americans don't follow that rule very closely.

  • But Chandler does here, the interview.

  • How'd the interview go?

  • How'd the interview go?

  • How'd the interview go?

  • Ugh. I blew it.

  • Ugh. Ugh. Just a sound of exasperation ugh but even that has an up-down shape ugh.

  • Ugh.

  • Ugh.

  • Ugh. I blew it.

  • I is really hard to hear almost imperceptible; I blew it.

  • I know it's there grammatically, but we really barely hear it.

  • Blew, I blew it, blew is the stressed syllable there.

  • I blew it.

  • I blew it.

  • I blew it.

  • I blew it, blew it. She does release a true T here and the two words link together very smoothly.

  • If you blow something that means you do a poor job at it.

  • You can blow an interview, you can blow a test, you can blow a project, you can blow a first impression.

  • Ugh. I blew it. It did not go well.

  • I blew it.

  • I blew it.

  • I blew it. I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • Okay. In her next sentence what are our most stressed words?

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I has a lot of stress there. That's a little unusual.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me. High and a little bit on me too.

  • So, usually we don't stress I but for the meaning in this sentence, she is.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • I wouldn't have even hired me.

  • Let's listen to just those three words wouldn't have even.

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • Wouldn't have even, wouldn't have even, wouldn't have even, wouldn't have even.

  • A little bit hard to tell that's wouldn't have even if you hear just that.

  • So, wouldn't have becomes wouldn't have, wouldn't have, wouldn't have, wouldn't have.

  • ...wouldn't have

  • ...wouldn't have

  • ...wouldn't have even.

  • Wouldn't have even becomes wouldn' have even.

  • So, the T. I listened to it a bunch of times to decide. Did I think it was totally dropped or did I think it's a little bit of a stop T?

  • I think you could do either. You could do a really light stop T, or you could just drop it: wouldn' have--

  • Wouldn' have even, wouldn' have even, wouldn' have even.

  • The H is dropped, the word have is reduced to SCHWA V wouldn' 'ave even,

  • wouldn' 'ave even, wouldn' 'ave even, wouldn' 'ave even, wouldn' ''ave even.

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • ...wouldn't have even

  • These kinds of simplifications are key in American English.

  • They provide contrast to the stressed syllables the stressed words like the word hired.

  • ...wouldn't have even hired me.

  • ...wouldn't have even hired me.

  • ...wouldn't have even hired me.

  • The ed ending in hired is a D sound because the sound before was voiced it was the R consonant,

  • hired me. So, we have the R sound, the D sound and the M sound.

  • The D is very subtle. I actually don't think I really hear it.

  • I feel like it's more dropped hired me, hired me hired me.

  • ...hired me

  • ...hired me

  • ...hired me

  • If anything, it's just a very subtle D sound in the vocal chords

  • just like up here the D sound before the voiced TH. So, it's not a clear D.

  • It's not hired me but it's hired me, hired me.

  • If anything, it's just d, d, d a very quick subtle D sound not released.

  • Just the vocal cords vibrating with the tongue in the position.

  • ...hired me.

  • ...hired me.

  • >> ...hired me. >> Oh.

  • Oh. Oh. His voice sort of has a nasal quality to it here I'm just noticing.

  • Oh, oh, a little bit of sympathy, oh.

  • Oh.

  • Oh.

  • Oh. Come here, sweetie.

  • What is our stress in this three word thought group?

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie. Come here becomes c'mere, c'mere, c'mere.

  • The word come reduced. I would write that K SCHWA M

  • and actually M takes over the SCHWA. It's a syllabic consonant so it's really just like KM, k'm here, k'm here.

  • The H is dropped, come 'ere, come 'ere, come 'ere, come 'ere, sweetie, come 'ere sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • And stress on that k'm 'ere sweetie.

  • Sweetie with a flap T because the T comes between two vowels sweetie,

  • k'm 'ere sweetie, k'm 'ere sweetie. So, it's not come here it's k'm 'ere.

  • That's a very common way to pronounce those two words together, k'm 'ere, k'm 'ere sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie.

  • Come here, sweetie. Listen.

  • Listen.

  • First syllable stress we have that up-down shape

  • listen and the second syllable just comes in on the way down.

  • The T in listen is silent.

  • That's just the pronunciation, it's not something Americans do,

  • it's the actual official pronunciation.

  • Up here the actual official pronunciation of here is

  • with the H but every once in a while we drop it like in this phrase

  • but in this word it's just not ever pronounced, listen.

  • Listen.

  • Listen.

  • Listen. You're going to go on, like...

  • Okay. So, he puts a little break here.

  • So, in this thought group

  • what do you hear as being the most stressed syllable.

  • You're going to go on like...

  • You're going to go on like...

  • You're going to go on like...

  • You're going to go on like.

  • You're going go- I hear go, the verb as the most stressed.

  • You are going to becomes you're gonna, you're gonna, you're gonna.

  • You are you're becomes yer, yer, yer.

  • Just a Y sound and a R sound. You don't need to try to make the SCHWA.

  • R is also a syllabic consonant, it overpowers the SCHWA yer, yer, yer.

  • Going to becomes gonna so you are going to is

  • you're gonna, you're gonna, you're gonna, you're gonna

  • You're going to...

  • You're going to...

  • You're going to...

  • You're gonna go, you're gonna go.

  • You're going to go....

  • You're going to go...

  • You're going to go on like...

  • On and like just falling in pitch away from the peak of stress at go.

  • Go on like, go on like.

  • ...go on like...

  • ...go on like...

  • ...go on like a thousand interviews before you get a job.

  • Okay and in this next thought group what is the most stressed syllable?

  • ...a thousand interviews before you get a job.

  • ...a thousand interviews before you get a job.

  • ... a thousand interviews before you get a job.

  • A thousand. I think thou has the most stress.

  • A thousand

  • interviews before, a little bit of stress here as well,

  • before you get a job, but I think the most stress is on thousand.

  • So, that word begins with an unvoiced TH.

  • You do need to bring your tongue tip through the teeth for that a thousand.

  • ...a thousand...

  • ...a thousand...

  • ...a thousand...

  • And the letter A here just a SCHWA.

  • A thousand, oops I just realized

  • there's a typo here isn't there?

  • There's an A in that word a thousand.

  • ...a thousand...

  • ...a thousand...

  • ...a thousand interviews...

  • Interviews, interviews, again he drops the T it's a very normal and natural pronunciation interviews.

  • ...interviews...

  • ...interviews...

  • ...interviews...

  • It's so weird I have never noticed this about Ross before and yes I've seen this show

  • but his R in interviews and before is a little weak

  • which is a little bit of a New York accent interviews before.

  • ...interviews before...

  • ...interviews before...

  • ...interviews before you get a job.

  • I definitely recommend you stick with a standard American accent

  • which does have a bit of a stronger R sound in those words interviews before you get a job.

  • ...interviews before you get a job.

  • ... interviews before you get a job.

  • ... interviews before you get a job.

  • Before you get a job, before you get a job.

  • You can really feel that stress before you get a job, da-da-da-da-da-da.

  • It starts to feel like a music a little bit when you study the stress before you get a job.

  • You get a, all lower in pitch flatter.

  • Again, the letter A is just a quick SCHWA linking the words together.

  • The T in get is a flap T. It comes between two vowels,

  • it links those words together, you get a job.

  • ...you get a job.

  • ...you get a job.

  • ...you get a job.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • So, of course what he meant was it takes a lot of tries to actually get a job.

  • What it sounded like was she's not going to interview

  • very well and is going to have to do it a thousand times before she gets a job.

  • So, that's what he meant when he said that's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • We say that if we say something and the meaning didn't quite come across right.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was, that's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • Come out, a phrasal verb.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was supposed to come out.

  • That's not how that was... So, we have a full A vowel in that's

  • both times it doesn't reduce that's not how that was.

  • We have a stop T in this word that.

  • That was, that was, that was.

  • It's not released, that would be that was, that was over pronounced. We don't release our T's very often.