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  • Hello! Welcome to News Review from BBC Learning English.

  • I'm Tom. Joining me this morning is Catherine. Hi Catherine.

  • Hello Tom. Hello everybody. Today's story is all about

  • President Donald Trump's tax returns.

  • And don't forgetif you want to test yourself on

  • today's vocabulary, you can go to bbclearningenglish.com to find a quiz.

  • Now, let's listen to the audio clip from a BBC Radio 2 news bulletin:

  • So, a report in The New York Times in the United States

  • gives an insight into Donald Trump's financial

  • situation. Now it says that he paid only $750 in tax in the year that he became

  • US president. It also says that rather than making a lot of money

  • he's actually lost a great amount of money

  • during the last few years. Now, Donald Trump

  • says that this is a fake story.

  • 'It's fake news!' Yes, and we've got three

  • words and expressions that you can use to talk about this story.

  • Yes, we have: 'sink', 'lashes out' and 'sham'.

  • 'Sink', 'lashes out' and 'sham'.

  • Catherine, let's take a look at your first headline, please.

  • Of course. We are starting in the United States

  • with NBC News. Now, the headline goes like this:

  • 'Lashes out' – criticises someone angrily and suddenly.

  • Yes. 'Lashes out' – L-A-S-H-E-S – and the second word is out – O-U-T.

  • It's a phrasal verb. The infinitive form is lash: L-A-S-H... O-U-T. 'Lash out'

  • 'Lashes out'. Now, are there any prepositions we can use with 'lash out'?

  • Yes, you can lash out at somebody or something.

  • You can lash out against somebody or something.

  • And what you're doing when you lash out is you're showing anger. You're showing a

  • lot of anger: you show it very quickly and very suddenly.

  • Sometimes because you think that you're being attacked

  • and sometimes for no reason at all.

  • I remember the other day, Tom, yes – I gave

  • a tiny little suggestion for your programme, didn't I? Do you remember?

  • I said you had a lovely programme and I really enjoyed it;

  • I just thought it was a bit heavy and one or two jokes

  • might be a small improvement. I like the programme

  • but a joke or two might be nice. Remember?

  • Well... well... well do you know what, Catherine? I'm just going to stop you there

  • because sometimes people are tired, sometimes they're stressed,

  • sometimes it's difficult to make a programme and to be honest,

  • I think you have lots of problems with your programmes anyway.

  • Ooooh... OK... Not another word from me then, Tom.

  • There's no need to lash out like that. You can see I was

  • lashing out against you there. I was responding angrily and suddenly.

  • Yes and I love all your programmes anyway Tom – I was just joking.

  • So I'm a person. President Trump is a person.

  • Is it always people that lash out?

  • Often but not always. You imagine, you know, if you're a cat person

  • or if you know what cats can be like: one minute they're happy,

  • the next minute they're trying to fight you and bite you.

  • They lash out, often for no reason and other animals

  • can do it as well so... yeah, an attack – a sudden attack that

  • comes from nowhere is 'lashing out'.

  • 'To lash out' – to attack angrily and suddenly.

  • Now, we have some more videos on phrasal verbs, don't we?

  • We have loads of videos on phrasal verbs.

  • To watch just one of them, click the link. Click the link.

  • OK. Catherine, can we have our next headline, please?

  • Of course. We're going to The Guardian, here in the UK, now. The headline:

  • 'Sink' – cause to fail. Now, this isn't the main definition of 'sink'.

  • No. We'll look at the main definition first and then we'll go to

  • the definition we're looking at today. So, 'sink' is a verb – S-I-N-K.

  • It meansthe main definition is when something falls to the bottom of something.

  • So, if somethingif the Titanic for example,

  • the famous ship, sank in the ocean. It went right

  • to the bottom of the ocean.

  • So, to sort of go to the bottom below the surface, right?

  • Exactly. Below the surface is quite important in this definition.

  • If you thinkif you're baking a cake, you put your cake

  • in the oven: it should rise but sometimes it goes

  • horribly wrong and again it moves right down to the

  • bottom of the pan and you have a horrible cake, which is

  • soggy and horrible. So, 'sinking' in its main meaning means

  • going to the bottom and we have to say that, you know,

  • that cake would be a failure.

  • And that is the second definition of 'sink' that we're looking at today.

  • 'To sink' means to fail.

  • Now, 'sink' is an irregular verb, isn't it?

  • It is, yeah. The past of 'sink' is 'sank'.

  • The past participle is 'sunk'.

  • So, what is the headline saying about President Trump?

  • So, if something 'sinks you' it causes your failure .

  • So, is 'sink' just for people?

  • No, no. Organisations can sink, projects can sink or... events can sink projects.

  • So, businesses, projects, ideas: lots of things can sink.

  • If it can succeed, it can sink.

  • If it can succeed, it can fail: it can sink. It can fail very strongly.

  • Thank you, Catherine.

  • And we've got another video about a famous sinking, don't we?

  • Yes, we do. We mentioned the Titanic just before: we have a video about the Titanic.

  • Just click the link to watch it.

  • Catherine, can we have your next headline, please?

  • Yes. We're back in the US now. We're at CNN and the headline is:

  • 'Sham' – something intended to trick or deceive people.

  • Yes. This is a noun – S-H-A-M – 'sham'.

  • Now, if something is a 'sham', it's fake: it's not real, it's a trick, it's an illusion.

  • CNN are saying that Donald Trump's image that he's created of himself

  • as successful, tax-payingmaking lots of money

  • they're saying actually he didn't make much money at all. In fact, he lost

  • money and he didn't pay much tax. So, they're saying his image

  • is fake, it's not real: it's a sham.

  • It's a sham. It's a big sham. It's a fake. This is what the news story says.

  • Donald Trump says, 'This is fake news.'

  • Now, is 'sham' always a noun?

  • We can use it in an adjective sense as well.

  • If we put it before another noun, then we can use it as an adjective

  • like 'sham marriage' or 'sham wedding', for example.

  • So a sham marriage or a sham wedding

  • would be one which is fake. For example, I suppose peopleif you

  • marry a citizen of a country for a visa, this would be a sham marriage, right?

  • Yeah. Yeah, it's a kind of marriage where peoplethey don't know

  • each other, they come together, they get married

  • and then they go away, they never see each other again;

  • so that this person can get a visa. Or sometimes

  • they live together for a short amount of time, but not as a married couple,

  • and then they split up and the person has a visa, and sometimes the

  • other person gets some money for it, but it's all fake.

  • The marriage is fake: it's a sham. A fake wedding...

  • A sham marriage. A sham wedding. Sham guests. Sham gifts.

  • It's all a big sham. ...Sham cake!

  • Exactly.

  • Great. OK. Catherine, could you please recap today's vocabulary?

  • Yes. We had 'sink' – cause to fail.

  • We had 'lashes out' – criticises someone angrily and suddenly.

  • And we had 'sham' – something intended to trick or deceive people.

  • Don't forget that you can test yourself on today's vocabulary

  • on the website bbclearningenglish.com.

  • We are all over social media too and that's it for today. Thanks for

  • watching and we'll see you next time. Goodbye.

  • Bye! Bye.

Hello! Welcome to News Review from BBC Learning English.

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Trump's tax returns - News Review

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/10/30
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