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  • I've got 5 new vocabulary words coming at you, with context, so you'll never forget them.

  • If you're a non-native speaker preparing for the TOEFL or IELTS exams,

  • or you just want to make your conversational English a little bit more sophisticated,

  • you'll want to know these words.

  • We're using the Academic Word List,

  • which has narrowed down the most important words for you to know.

  • So let's get started.

  • But first, if you like this video or you learn something,

  • please give a thumbs up and subscribe with notifications, it really does help.

  • We're starting with Band 1, which is the first set of words in the Academic Word list.

  • This is our third video in this series, I'll link to the full playlist at the end of this video.

  • Our first word is CONSTITUTIONAL

  • and it's most common use is as an adjective.

  • It means relating to an established set of principles, a constitution.

  • In the US we have what we call the Constitution of the United States, it's the law of the land.

  • It establishes the separation of powers in the United States, for example.

  • It has amendments that address things like personal and other rights.

  • For example, if I'm out protesting and someone says 'go home!'.

  • I can say, it's my constitutional right to protest.

  • The courts interpret the constitution and apply it to our lives today.

  • Let's look at some more examples on the web.

  • I'm using Youglish as my search tool.

  • A constitutional right to an appointed attorney.

  • A right. Something that the government says you get to do, or to have, that is protected by law.

  • Let's watch that one again.

  • Here's another example.

  • Again, talking about constitution rights.

  • Someone's right to do something as written in the constitution.

  • Let's see it again.

  • Here's another example.

  • A constitutional majority refers to America's house of representatives.

  • Whichever political party has the most members in the house, that party has a constitutional majority.

  • Let's watch that clip again.

  • And now, the next clip:

  • A constitutional amendment is a modification,

  • a change to the constitution.

  • Let's watch it again.

  • Now, one more example.

  • He used this adjective twice:

  • a constitutional question, meaning, are laws being broken?

  • And a constitutional lawyer, meaning, a lawyer who focuses on and is an expert in the constitution.

  • Constitutional.

  • This is a five syllable word, let's say it slowly together, and do focus on stress.

  • Simplify those unstressed syllables,

  • which are lower in pitch: Constitutional.

  • Constitutional.

  • Constitutional.

  • Let's look at that up close and in slow motion.

  • Before we talk about 'context', I'd like to take a moment to talk about Cambly, who is sponsoring this video.

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  • I really encourage you to try it out.

  • Pick a course, pick a teacher, and get yourself speaking English.

  • Actually doing it is the best way to learn.

  • Now back to our vocabulary. Our next word is CONTEXT.

  • Do you remember at the very beginning of this video, I said,

  • you're going to learn the words, with context, so that you never forget them.

  • Context is something around something else, the parts before and after,

  • to help it be fully understood, to help explain something.

  • Don't just learn the word and definition, study the context,

  • the words before and after in a sentence,

  • in a couple of sentences, to help you really understand what the word means, and how to use it.

  • Let's go to Youglish for some context, some examples.

  • He said, put it in a broader context.

  • That means, to understand it, let's look at even more factors, at an even more general story.

  • If we're studying a word and we see it in a sentence,

  • there's a chance that you might not really understand how to use it.

  • But if you use a broader context, maybe you read the whole paragraph,

  • the meaning of the word can become more clear.

  • So to have a broader context means to take in even more information about something.

  • Let's see that clip again.

  • And now, another example.

  • A new context. So he's talking about changing our understanding of something.

  • We used to think this was good, he's a doctor talking about being a doctor and medicine,

  • but now that we've learned more, we see that oh, we have a different context,

  • a different understanding,

  • different things we're considering when we're looking at what it means to be a good doctor.

  • Let's look at that clip again.

  • Another example.

  • In a business context.

  • So, considering something as it relates to business. This is different than how you might think of it as

  • it relates to family, or religion, for example.

  • In a business context, maybe the goal has to be to make more money.

  • But in a different context, a familial context, you might say,

  • you know, about money, the goal isn't just to make more.

  • It's to spend time with my kids or my parents, so how you approach a problem or question might be different depending on the context.

  • Let's watch that clip again.

  • One final example.

  • To put something into context.

  • This is something we can say when we've said something that might be hard to grasp or understand.

  • She says 86 billion dollars. Well, that's just a number.

  • If you compare it to other things, that can help you understand what this number really means.

  • Is 86 billion a lot or not that much?

  • It depends on the context.

  • Let's watch that example again.

  • This is a two-syllable word with first syllable stress.

  • Let's break it down and say it slowly together. Con-text. Text.

  • Here, the letter X here make the KS sounds, ks, ks.

  • Context. Then the T: kst, kst, kst. Context.

  • Context.

  • If this word links into a word that begins with a consonant, you'll want to drop the T.

  • For example, that's the context that I want you to consider.

  • Context that, Context that, Context that.

  • Right from the KS into the TH, we drop that T.

  • It's pretty common in American English to drop a T between other consonants

  • so that's what we'll do here.

  • Let's look up close and in slow motion.

  • Next, CONTRACT.

  • A contract is an agreement between two or more people or groups of people.

  • For example, when you buy a house, you put in an offer, it's accepted,

  • and you're under contract.

  • You've signed an agreement saying you will buy this house for this amount of money

  • on this particular day.

  • Let's go to Youglish to get some more examples.

  • A book contract.

  • That means she has signed with a publisher,

  • that she will write a book on a certain topic that they will publish.

  • An agreement. Let's see it again.

  • Another example.

  • Extending a contract: this means he worked it out do something even longer than he had originally agreed to.

  • He extended his work contract another month.

  • Let's watch that example again.

  • Another example.

  • So we're talking about a book contract again.

  • And here, and he was too young to sign it.

  • There are laws about how old people have to be to enter into official agreements like a book contract.

  • Let's watch that one again.

  • And now, one final example.

  • Signed the contract without even reading it.

  • Okay, that's something you probably shouldn't do!

  • Contract. An agreement, something official.

  • A two syllable word, first syllable stress, CON-tract.

  • Contract. The word ends in the CT cluster.

  • Do you know what will happen if it's followed by a consonant?

  • Here's a hint: the T will come between two consonants.

  • We'll drop it. Here's an example sentence.

  • Did you sign a contract for the house?

  • Contract for the- for the-for the- K sound into the F consonant, no T sound.

  • We drop the T because it comes between two consonants.

  • Let's see it up close and in slow motion.

  • Next, CREATE. A verb.

  • To make something. Something that wasn't there before, to bring it about.

  • To use thought and imagination to make something.

  • An actor might create a role.

  • Someone wrote the movie,

  • but the actor took what was written on the page and made it a person, created a character.

  • Creativity, a related noun.

  • This is the ability to make something new, new ideas, new methods,

  • to do away with rules about how something should be done.

  • The ability to make something really original.

  • Let's look at an example.

  • How to create something new.

  • He's looking at a problem,

  • he knows all the ways we've tried to fix it before that don't work.

  • We need something totally new, totally different.

  • We need to create that. Let's watch again.

  • Here's another example.

  • Create a platform. Something that wasn't there before, a new kind of platform.

  • We're not using the old platform, we are creating something. Let's watch again.

  • Another example.

  • Ah yes. Creating jobs.

  • That's something you'll hear politicians say a lot.

  • Creating a job where there was not one before.

  • Let's watch that again.

  • And now, a final example.

  • Create a future. Oh yes, that's definitely something new that hasn't happened before, the future.

  • Let's watch that again.

  • Create is a two-syllable word with stress on the second syllable.

  • Create. Create. Create.

  • The final T will be a Flap T if this word links into a word that begins with a vowel or diphthong,

  • like in the phrase: create another.

  • Create a-dadada-Flap T, create another--

  • Can you create another draft? create another--

  • That's more natural than a True T, which would sound like this:

  • create another-- create another-- create another--

  • We don't do that, we flap: create another-- dadadadada-- create another--

  • Also in the word 'creative', it's a Flap T.

  • In the word creativity, now there, the first T is a True T, the second T is a Flap T,

  • that's because of stress.

  • Creati-tih-

  • Tih-- that syllable is stressed and if a T starts a stressed syllable, it will be a True T.

  • But the second T is a flap.

  • Creativity.

  • Creative.

  • Create.

  • Let's watch create up close and in slow motion.

  • Finally we have DATA. Let's start with the pronunciation of this word.

  • Now, this is something I really hate about online dictionaries.

  • It has a phonetic spelling, it has a recording, and the recording is totally robotic.

  • Data or data.

  • Data or data.

  • No. We totally don't say that. We say: data or data.

  • We make it a Flap T because the T comes between two vowel or diphthong sounds and

  • doesn't start a stressed syllable. Data, data.

  • Also, when she said it, the two syllables sounded like they were the same length. Let's listen.

  • Data or data.

  • But they're not. The first syllable is stressed, so it's longer.

  • The second is unstressed, so it's shorter.

  • Data. Data. Data. Data.

  • Now, the online dictionary says there are three pronunciations, the AY diphthong, day-ta,

  • the AA vowel, da-ta, I heard both of those, but it also says dah-ta,

  • with the AH as in Father vowel, and I've never heard that one in the American accent before.

  • Data, with the AY diphthong is definitely the most common pronunciation and is what we'll hear in all our examples on Youglish.

  • Data means information, facts, statistics.

  • It's something we gather to learn about something,

  • something we use to make decisions.

  • Let's go to Youglish for some examples and context.

  • Now, this word can be used both as a plural or singular:

  • individual facts or statistics, for example:

  • These data are convincing. Plural.

  • Or it can mean a body of facts, a group, then it's used with a singular verb. For example:

  • Additional data is available at our website.

  • Okay, let's go to Youglish.

  • The data to prove. You have an argument, something to prove, you have to back it up with information,

  • maybe statistics, data.

  • He also said the data shows.

  • The data shows, the data proves, these are verbs you might hear with this subject.

  • Let's look at another clip.

  • Any kind of good or data, we don't want tampered with.

  • Like personal data. Have you heard this term? Name, address, social security number, family members.

  • This is all personal data that we want kept private.

  • Let's watch that example again.

  • Another example.

  • They looked at the data:

  • the real numbers, the real information on what veterans need.

  • They didn't just guess, they got the information and they spoke to the veterans themselves.

  • Let's look at that example again.

  • And here's one last example.

  • Big data. Have you heard this term before?

  • It refers to sets of data that are so big that companies can't use traditional methods of processing.