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  • (brisk music)

  • - Hello, this is Jack from ToFluency.com.

  • Now, today we are going to have a conversation in English

  • giving you an English lesson on the election,

  • the U.S. election, which is happening in-

  • - November.

  • - November, just over a month.

  • Now, what we're going to do in this video is

  • give you some of the key terms

  • so that you can talk about this election in English

  • and learn some vocabulary, such as left wing,

  • right wing, polls, polling station,

  • debates, campaigns, news cycles.

  • And we're going to just have a discussion on this election

  • but, more importantly, give you the vocabulary

  • so that you can talk about it yourself.

  • Okay, so-

  • - It's also important to note that,

  • while we are gonna be talking about the election

  • and we do have our own opinions

  • and beliefs about the candidates involved,

  • that we're gonna try to keep those

  • out of the conversation as much as possible.

  • - Yeah, so it's not our opinion

  • on who we are going to vote for

  • or who we want to win, but it's more of a discussion

  • about the election in general.

  • And you can have a discussion below,

  • so please leave some comments.

  • So what we're going to do first,

  • before we get into a lot of the nitty gritty,

  • a lot of the details about everything,

  • is we're just going to lay out the foundation

  • of the election and talk briefly about what it's all about,

  • because it can be confusing

  • and it's different to what I'm used to from the UK.

  • So, the election is every four years.

  • - Correct.

  • - And who are we voting for in this election?

  • Not which candidate,

  • but what type of things are we voting for?

  • - Which roles or positions?

  • - Yes.

  • - So obviously there are more elections that happen

  • in between those four years,

  • but every four years

  • is when we have a presidential election.

  • And so that's gonna be one of the biggest

  • and definitely one of the most talked about positions

  • that is up for election this year.

  • Also we have senators, depending on where you live,

  • who are up for election, House of Representatives,

  • and then a lot of other government positions too

  • at the state and local level.

  • - There's a lot of research to be done

  • if you want to know who to vote for.

  • Because the president, that's the big one,

  • that's the one everyone talks about.

  • And I'm sure you know it's Donald Trump versus Joe Biden.

  • Those are the two main candidates.

  • There are also third-party candidates.

  • - This is true.

  • - But in the U.S.,

  • it's really overtaken by the Democratic candidate

  • and the Republican candidate.

  • And we'll talk more about those two parties later

  • and what they more or less represent.

  • But this is the big one, the presidential election,

  • and people are saying it's the biggest election

  • of our lifetimes.

  • - (exhales) Yeah.

  • - But they say that every time.

  • - I mean, yes, there is always a lot of hype,

  • but I think that this time

  • there is a lot of different opinions

  • between people who are considering voting Republican

  • and people who are considering voting Democratic,

  • or have historically voted that way.

  • And so it's definitely an election year

  • that feels more important.

  • It feels like there's more at stake.

  • - Yeah, more at stake, which means...

  • How would you explain that?

  • - Oh, good question.

  • So kind of that there's more

  • that people are deciding on than usual.

  • - Yeah, or the outcome is going to be more important

  • and it's gonna change.

  • So, yeah, there were different kinds of elections,

  • the big one, the president, but then you also have,

  • you say it depends where you live, the senators,

  • the representatives, everyone voting for representatives.

  • And these two are both, they represent Congress.

  • Now, we're not gonna go into what that all means

  • 'cause it is complicated.

  • We're not probably the best at explaining this,

  • but just know that these are people

  • who represent everyone who lives in a certain area.

  • - Oh, but by the way,

  • Jack actually has had a recent refresher

  • because you became an American citizen last year.

  • - Last year, so I know a little bit about it

  • 'cause on the test I had to answer some questions.

  • - Was the test hard?

  • - Well, there were 100 questions

  • and they gave you the 100 questions ahead of time

  • and the answers that they want to hear,

  • so if you can memorize it, it makes it a lot easier.

  • But things like 100 senators.

  • I think 435 representatives?

  • - That sounds right.

  • - Something like that.

  • But, yeah, there are also local elections.

  • So there are also state elections.

  • So you vote for representatives in the state

  • and governors and treasures

  • and then there are city elections too.

  • So there are a lot of things to think about

  • when you're voting.

  • Now, one term that I want to bring up is party line,

  • to vote, how would you say it, to vote by party line?

  • - Yeah or to vote down the party line.

  • - Which means that if you are a Democrat,

  • then you just vote for the Democrats,

  • no matter what position it is.

  • And vice-versa, if you're a Republican,

  • then you might want to do that as well.

  • But there are also a lot of independent voters

  • who are undecided and they don't know which to vote for.

  • And they might vote for some Republicans

  • and some Democrats, dependent on the candidate.

  • But let's just talk about the Democratic party

  • and Republican party 'cause I want to bring up some terms

  • to describe those two parties.

  • Firstly, there are some nicknames for the parties.

  • What are those?

  • - Well, I can talk about the kind of mascot

  • or animal that represents those parties.

  • So the animal that represents the Republican party

  • is the elephant

  • and the animal that represents the Democratic party

  • is the mule.

  • - The mule.

  • And Republican is represented by the red color.

  • Democratic party, blue.

  • Now we can also talk about left wing

  • versus right wing here,

  • which is not always easy to explain.

  • - It is difficult to.

  • - But I'm sure you have the same term

  • in your own native language too,

  • where policies are or parties or either left wing,

  • right wing, or somewhere in the middle.

  • And you have things like far left, far right,

  • center left, center right, center.

  • But a good way to explain it is to talk

  • about some of the important issues

  • and what those parties represent.

  • - True, and also another word that we often use

  • as an adjective for describing that divide

  • is that people who are more right wing are conservative

  • and people who are more left wing are liberal.

  • - Yeah and that term can be a little confusing sometimes,

  • liberal, because there's also the classic liberal,

  • who is someone a bit different than the modern liberal.

  • - Same for conservative.

  • - Yes. - Yes.

  • - So issues, whenever there is an election,

  • there are certain issues that come up

  • that people want to talk about.

  • Now, this year, the coronavirus is a big issue,

  • but we also have other things like the economy,

  • foreign policy, healthcare, and immigration.

  • So those are four issues

  • that both parties want to put their side forward.

  • So let's just take the economy.

  • I think one of the big differences between the two parties

  • is that the Democratic party, when it comes to the economy,

  • they want to tax the rich and give that money to the poor.

  • It's very simplistic.

  • - Or use that taxation to fund public programs.

  • - Yes and welfare.

  • And the Democratic party like to talk

  • about increasing taxes on certain people.

  • The Republican party,

  • they talk about no or less taxes, fewer taxes,

  • and more of a free market economy.

  • Very simplistic.

  • There's a lot of nuance and subtlety here,

  • but that's a good way to describe it.

  • How would you describe healthcare as well

  • and the differences between the two parties generally?

  • - In healthcare, it's hard to completely summarize

  • because we have a very different opinions

  • even among, for example, the Democratic party.

  • If you're more left wing, you are probably wanting some form

  • of more socialized healthcare.

  • So that would be kind of the far left by American standards.

  • And then the center left is in support

  • of what was called Obamacare,

  • which made certain rules about insurance companies,

  • that everyone had to be insured,

  • and also funded more people to get insurance

  • in various ways.

  • And then on the more conservative side

  • or right wing side, Republican side,

  • there's a push to repeal, or take away, Obamacare

  • and have a free healthcare market

  • without the expansion of socialized healthcare

  • or the kind of protections and funding from the government

  • for insurance that came in with Obamacare.

  • - So this is quite a complicated topic.

  • We have a lot of words there, things like insurance.

  • And also it's important to have a good overview

  • of what the American healthcare system is.

  • Now, if you're from Europe,

  • then you won't pay for health care,

  • in most cases, when you go to the hospital, to the doctors.

  • This is funded through taxes,

  • whereas in the U.S. you buy insurance

  • or you get insurance through your workplace,

  • through your employer,

  • and then if something happens to you,

  • you have to go through a very sometimes complicated process

  • to make sure that the insurance company pays

  • for the health care.

  • And, again, here, it's very complicated in how it works,

  • but I think Kate summarized it really well.

  • And a good way to say it is nationalized healthcare

  • versus privatized healthcare.

  • And there's a big debate in America about this.

  • But generally speaking,

  • that nationalized health care is never really put forward

  • or introduced as a policy.

  • It doesn't really have the backing

  • or people don't put it forward as much.

  • (brisk music)

  • Moving on to some fun stuff now.

  • Election season is crazy.

  • - Is it?

  • 'Cause this is actually your first election season.

  • This is the first time you're going to be able to vote

  • in a presidential election.

  • You've been in the United States for a past election.

  • - Yes, that was the Trump versus Clinton election.

  • - But because you weren't a citizen,

  • you weren't able to vote.

  • - No, but last time it was so interesting

  • because no one thought that Donald Trump had a chance

  • of winning and little by little,

  • it became more apparent that maybe he's going to