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  • Today we're going to continue to teach you the best English vocabulary words to know, the most useful.

  • We're using the Academic Word List.

  • You need to know these words if you're preparing for the IELTS or the TOEFL exam,

  • or just even for more sophisticated conversation,

  • even if you're not preparing for an exam.

  • These words are for intermediate students.

  • As we study the words and definitions, we're going to go to Youglish

  • so we can see lots of examples of these words being used in real life

  • so you can better understand the meaning.

  • And don't forget, if you enjoy this video, or learn something new,

  • please like it and subscribe with notifications. It means a lot to me.

  • These are words you can expect to encounter on a daily basis in everyday life,

  • newspapers, on TV, and so on.

  • You're going to learn, REALLY LEARN, 5 words today.

  • We're pulling words from Band 1 of the Academic Word list, in alphabetical order, this is the second five.

  • And we're going to do something important here,

  • we're going to give you the definition in English.

  • And then you'll hear examples in English.

  • So you'll learn this as an English word, not just as a translation of a word in your own language,

  • and that will help you to think in English and integrate this word into your use of English.

  • Our first word is authority.

  • Four syllables, second syllable stress, and we have a Flap T in there.

  • Au-thor-ity.

  • Let's watch it up-close and in slow motion so we can really study the mouth movement.

  • Authority. It's a noun, and it means power.

  • The power to give orders, make decisions.

  • For example, the owner of company has the authority to hire and fire people.

  • The parents have the authority in the family.

  • They get to make the decisions.

  • We decide when kids go to bed.

  • Power. It's also confidence.

  • When you know a lot about something, when you're respected in that field, you have authority.

  • He's the leading authority on penguins.

  • He knows so much about them, we trust what he says about them. He's the leading authority.

  • Or you could say, he's an authority on, with the preposition 'on'.

  • He's an authority on penguins.

  • An authority on penguins.

  • He spoke with authority.

  • That means, he had confidence that what he was saying

  • would be trusted and that everyone would believe and respect these words.

  • He said it with authority.

  • It's power, it's confidence, but we also use it to refer to people who have authority.

  • Have you ever noticed the word 'authority' used in the news?

  • Local authorities are investigating the issue.

  • This would probably mean police.

  • He complained to the authorities about his neighbor's dog.

  • Now, let's go to Youglish to look at some more sample sentences.

  • He said he has the authority, that is, he has the power to do something.

  • The next sentence:

  • Is a real authority.

  • So, referring to the person.

  • He IS an authority in a particular field.

  • He is seen as one of the most knowledgeable people in the modern art scene.

  • Our next sentence:

  • May lack the authority.

  • That is, they may lack the power to do something.

  • Might want to do something but not be able to do it because of the laws.

  • The laws have not given that person or group the power to make that decision, the power to act.

  • They may lack authority.

  • The next sentence:

  • Question authority. Have you heard this before?

  • It means to challenge the power of somebody.

  • Maybe to break the rules: challenge authority.

  • For example, a college professor is giving a lecture.

  • She's an authority on the subject.

  • A student might say, excuse me, I'm not sure that's right, have you thought about this?

  • Questioning authority.

  • Some people would never do that, and some people think it's very important to do that.

  • Question authority.

  • Our next sentence:

  • An authority on.

  • Confidence, knowledge, believed to know a lot about something, respected in that way.

  • An authority on youth culture.

  • Knows a lot about that, her opinions and what she says about it is respected.

  • Authority.

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  • and thank you to Cambly for sponsoring this video.

  • Ok, we're going to move on to the next word, that is 'available'.

  • And to give you guys a heads up, we're looking at benefit, concept, and consistent next.

  • Available. Just like 'authority' it's a four-syllable word, with second syllable stress,

  • and we have a schwa in the first syllable. Uh, uh, uh, authority.

  • Uh, uh, uh, available.

  • Do you hear how the rhythm is the same? Da-da-da-da.

  • Authority. Available.

  • Let's watch this up-close.

  • It's an adjective. It means easy or possible to get, to find.

  • Just before the big storm, emergency supplies were not available anywhere.

  • It was not possible to find emergency supplies, they were all sold out.

  • The opposite of available is 'unavailable'.

  • We also use it with people.

  • Someone is able to talk with someone, or meet with someone, or not.

  • I need to call my boss, but she's not available until after 2pm.

  • It's not possible to get her on the phone before that.

  • Hi, is Rachel there? Sorry, she's not available right now.

  • It can also mean not being used, not occupied.

  • If you're sitting at a conference and someone says, is that seat available?

  • You can say, yes, it's available, you can sit here.

  • Or, no, it's not available. My friend is sitting here. She's in the bathroom. Sorry.

  • It also means free or ready to do something: I'm available to babysit most weekends.

  • That means I'm free. I would like to do that. I'm available.

  • And finally, we also use it to mean not involved in a romantic relationship.

  • Your friend Jack is so cute. Is he available?

  • No, he's been dating someone for a long time.

  • Possible. Free or easy to get.

  • For a person: able to speak with someone or do something with or for someone.

  • Not occupied, like the chair, and not dating someone.

  • Let's go to Youglish and check out some more sentences.

  • Made benefits available.

  • Made them easy or possible to get.

  • Our next sentence:

  • And it is also available in 17 different languages.

  • Available in 17 different languages – possible to get in 17 different languages.

  • Our next clip:

  • The teachers who are available.

  • That is, the teachers who are able to take on new students.

  • Our next clip:

  • When he's available, when the doctor is free to see patients, for what time can she make an appointment.

  • Oh, when is he available? Thursday next week?

  • Available. Easy to get, free, not busy, not occupied.

  • Next is 'benefit'. Three syllables, first-syllable stress, be-ne-fit.

  • Let's look up-close.

  • Benefit. A noun: it's a good or helpful effect or result.

  • One of the benefits of solar is lowering your energy bill.

  • It's also something extra that an employer can offer in addition to salary.

  • For example, the benefits at my new job are great: full health coverage, 401k, 6 weeks paid vacation.

  • It can also be a social event to raise money:

  • We're having a benefit to raise money for the local homeless shelter.

  • There's going to be dinner and dancing.

  • Have you ever heard the phrase 'the benefit of the doubt?'

  • If someone gives you the benefit of the doubt, then they believe you in a given situation.

  • For example, some people think he's lying, but I'm giving him the benefit of the doubt.

  • 'Benefit' is also a verb, and it means to be helpful or useful.

  • The new park really benefits the families in the neighborhood.

  • How did you benefit from your experience at your last job?

  • That means, what did your last job help you learn?

  • Benefit: a helpful result; something in addition to a salary in a job.

  • Now, let's go to Youglish for some more phrases.

  • For the benefit of our viewers.

  • A helpful result. The interviewer believes this man has experiences, ideas, opinions to share

  • that would benefit people watching. That would be helpful to them.

  • Our next sentence:

  • The enormous benefit. This partnership has been extremely helpful to them.

  • And our next sentence:

  • He's going to benefit from those decisions.

  • He will have a positive impact from these decisions.

  • Helpful, positive.

  • And now, our next clip:

  • The retirement plan.

  • That is a benefit of some jobs. In addition to your wages, you might get a retirement plan.

  • I hope this video benefits you in some way.

  • Has a positive impact.

  • Concept. A noun. Two syllables. Can you tell which syllable is stressed?

  • Concept. It's the first syllable.

  • Let's look up-close.

  • An idea of what something is or how it works.

  • Maybe someone is explaining a new invention to you and you say,

  • I get the concept.

  • I have an idea of how it works. Or, she doesn't get the concept of how to write an essay.

  • She doesn't understand that you need an introduction, then a body, and a conclusion.

  • She doesn't get the concept of how writing an essay works.

  • Or maybe someone thinks they have a really great idea of a new way to approach nutrition in school cafeterias.

  • Someone could say, that's not a new concept.

  • They've been doing that in Europe for years.

  • That means it's not a new idea.

  • Or maybe, if I like the way a history teacher explains something in a video, I might think,

  • I'm going to borrow that concept in my next video.

  • Concept. An idea – what something is or how it works.

  • Let's go to Youglish.

  • That idea was coupled with the concept.

  • That means paired together, with the idea of the free market.

  • With an understanding of the free market and how it works. That concept.

  • Our next sentence:

  • Consider a concept more broadly.

  • That means take this idea, and how we think it works,

  • and ask ourselves to expand that, to look beyond how we think it works and ask ourselves:

  • Could it work like this? Could it work like that?

  • Expand our concept of it.

  • The next sentence.

  • It's the same concept, but with lots of bells and whistles.

  • It's the same idea, it works the same way, but with extra things.

  • 'Bells and whistles' is an idiom, this means extra things, things you don't necessarily need,

  • but some people might want.

  • For example, a toaster.

  • I bought a toaster recently for my family, we hadn't had one before,

  • and I couldn't decide, did I just want something basic and simple

  • or did I want one with more bells and whistles like a digital clock?

  • I went with the simple one.

  • Our next clip:

  • There was no concept of stopping bullying.

  • No idea about it – no one was considering it, or thinking about how that might work,

  • everyone was just accepting that it was okay, and that they didn't need to do anything about it.

  • There was no concept of stopping it.

  • And our last word, consistent. An adjective, three syllables with middle syllable stress.

  • Make sure that first syllable doesn't even have a vowel in it. Kn. The N absorbs the schwa. Kn.

  • Consistent. Also notice I'm not releasing the T at the end. I'm not saying 'consistent'.

  • I'm saying 'consistent' and making that a stop. That's the most common pronunciation you'll hear.

  • Let's watch this up-close.

  • If I wanted to give you a definition of just one word, it would be 'same'.

  • Acting the same way. We need to be more consistent in how we discipline the kids.

  • Sometimes we ignore them, sometimes we yell at them, sometimes we try to reason with them.

  • I think we need to come up with our concept of parenting.

  • And be more consistent with it.

  • We need to be consistent in our approach to parenting.

  • I threw in the word 'approach' there which is a word we learned in our last Band 1 vocabulary video.

  • You can find the link to that video here.

  • Now, I'm going to use it as an adverb by throwing on LY:

  • Their Pad Thai is consistently the best I've had.

  • It's the same .

  • Every time I have it, it's the best.

  • If it's inconsistent, then that means sometimes it's great and sometimes it's not.

  • You don't really want a product that's inconsistent. You want people to be able to rely on that.

  • Notice, it's IN, inconsistent.

  • Earlier we had 'available' and 'unavailable',

  • UN, as opposites.

  • But here, it's not UN, it's IN.

  • Inconsistent. Unavailable. Inconsistent.

  • Consistent also means the same over time.

  • The pain has been consistent since the accident.

  • It's been the same.

  • It hasn't gotten any better.

  • Your symptoms are consistent with the flu.

  • That means your symptoms are the same symptoms that someone would have if they have the flu.

  • We think you have the flu based on your symptoms.

  • His story about