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• Hmm.

• The One, it's probably the best book I've read in a while.

• Hi. James from engVid.

• Today I want to talk to you about, funny enough, The One.

• And why I say: "The One" is usually when we talk about superlatives and comparatives,

• the number one comes up quite often.

• And, now, I'm not going to do your standard lesson on what the comparative is and the

• superlative is; you probably are aware of this, but I would like to point out five exceptions

• to the general rules.

• So, I'm going to quickly go over the difference between comparative and superlative, and then

• go into the exceptions.

• Let's go to the board.

• So, E, you got my five for me.

• Cool.

• You're going to notice on the board I have the number "1" written out repetitively.

• There's a reason for it, and we'll get into it.

• But let's start looking at: What is a "superlative"?

• I like to look at superlative as in Superman.

• Superman is the best, the strongest, the fastest, la, la, la - number one.

• So, when you think of a superlative, think of the highest or the best amount.

• Or, because it's extreme, it could be the worst.

• Now, I've used a couple of them already, but we're going to go to the board and get a little

• deeper into them.

• So, it could be number one at the top or number one at the bottom.

• Okay?

• "Comparative" is when we look at two things and we want to say there's a difference between

• them.

• "He is bigger than she is" or "James is bigger than Mr. E" - comparing the two.

• So, with a comparative, you generally find that we add "er" to the end of the word to

• tell you that something is being compared to something else.

• Okay?

• Comparative, and you'll see "er": "bigger", "smaller", "smarter", "taller".

• Cool?

• We got that.

• And with a superlative, we add usually "est".

• Right?

• And the "est" is for the "biggest", "strongest", "longest", "fastest", and it will be the number

• one in its category.

• And remember what I said: It could be the number one as in the best, like the best one

• position, or in the lowest position number one.

• So let's go to the board and find out what our exceptions are.

• You might be surprised, but they're actually quite often used, and actually quite often

• misunderstood.

• So, the first one we're going to look at is the "best".

• If you're from Japan, it's "ichiban"; if you're from Mexico or not even Mexico, any Latino

• country, it's "numero uno" or we say "number one".

• That's what the best is.

• Kind of simple, right?

• And we know what "good" is, because what's the opposite of "good"?

• "Good" is something we like.

• Now, why this is an exception is because usually, if you remember rightly, when I said "biggest",

• we start with "big" and we go to "biggest", and we go "bigger".

• So, we use the root word and we just add the "er" or the "est".

• But when we look over here, if you look at my chart, increasing-meaning it's getting

• better-there's an improvement going on - we start with the word "good".

• That has nothing to do with the word "best".

• Very different.

• And this is why it's an exception; it doesn't follow the rule of: Take the root word and

• It's a completely different word, but they are related in we say something starts off

• "good" - something you like, like 70%...

• 75% on a test is good.

• It's not great, but it's good, right?

• Or 80%.

• "Better", and this is where we talk about the improvement; "er" means a comparative...

• A comparison, and we're looking at two different things and comparing them; while "good" is

• 75%, "better" than that is 90%.

• There's a difference between the two numbers; it's an improvement or an increase.

• But the "best" would be 100%.

• Right?

• See, if you get 100%, you can't get much better than 100%, and we say that's the "best".

• Now, these numbers aren't real.

• I'm not saying each number corresponds to these things, but what I'm trying to give

• you an idea is how they're related.

• "Good", we like "good"; but what's better than good is something "better", or more,

• or increase; and the "best" is number one, just like The One, my book.

• Now, on that scale, this is good.

• Think of an angel.

• Right?

• "Good", "better", "best".

• Love you, love you, love you - angels.

• Now, let's talk about the opposite.

• It's my little devil; you got to have a devil.

• So, "good" is good, so "bad", it's got to be the opposite.

• And, once again, we talked about the exception for the comparatives and superlative rule

• simply because "bad" and "worst" are not words that go together; they have no root.

• The only thing that joins them together is this word here, and even still, you can't

• see how you go from here to here.

• That's what the problem is because students will go: "Teacher, why is it 'worst'?

• Why is it 'bad' and 'worse'?

• Right?

• But these are the way we compare it in English.

• If you had a test and you got 49%, you didn't quite pass, that would be pretty bad.

• Right?

• See, you wouldn't know what to say, that's why my little guy has no mouth.

• He's just like: "I don't know.

• All right?

• But "worse" than that would be 39.

• And if you notice, it's the complete opposite of when we talk about "good", "better", "best"

• where the arrow is going up for improvement.

• This is a decrease in...

• Well, I wouldn't say "decrease".

• This is...

• I'm going to say de-evolution, which is a big word, but we're declining.

• Okay?

• We're going down from the condition of what would be it's not so good, we're going to

• something worse that's...

• I like even less, and then when we say "worst", it's the number one.

• You notice here I said: "1,000,000,000 last".

• Crazy, right?

• What's 1,000,000,000?

• Or, you know what?

• Let's say this.

• Let's say 7,000,000,000 last.

• There's only 7 billion people on the planet, and if you're number 7 billion, you are the

• worst.

• So, "worst"...

• We got...

• Sorry, we had "bad", we go to "worst", which is the exact opposite of "good" to "best".

• Cool?

• And you have my little devil is showing you that.

• This is the angelic way, you're going up; and the devil goes down.

• All right?

• So, I compare these two.

• Now, let's look at the two other variables I talk are similar, yet opposites once again.

• On this side we're going to talk about "many", "more", and "most".

• Okay?

• The only thing they have in common is they all start with "m".

• Right?

• So, if you have a lot of something, you say: "I have many friends", "I have many good books",

• "I've been to many places".

• Right?

• And we mean "a lot"; it's more than one, two, or three.

• But when we say "more", if anything is...

• Remember we talked about there's an "er"?

• It's almost here that we have the "er" reversed.

• It's there, but it's reversed.

• So, we have the "er" for the comparative, and it means there's an addition or an increase

• from what our "many" is, so there's "more".

• So, we have many, we know this, but I even have more than that.

• "Many more experiences", so there's an addition or an increase on our "many".

• So that shows the difference in a comparison between what we have and what a difference

• is in a scale that's actually going up.

• All right?

• You might see, when you look here and here, there is something that they have in common,

• in which there's something better or increase, or we think a greater amount going on.

• When we talk about the "most", once again, we have that number one because it's the greatest

• amount; there is not more than that.

• "I have the most of this" - it means if there is...

• Let's give an example.

• 100th objects, if I have 90, it doesn't mean I have to have 100%, but I have most of it;

• there's only 10% left over for somebody else or something else.

• Yeah?

• Okay?

• So, when we talk about the "most", don't confuse it with being 100%.

• Even when we say the "best", the best is number one.

• When we say here, the "most", it's not exactly equivalent.

• It means the most...

• You can have the most at 60%; that's more than 40%.

• Cool?

• All right.

• So, let's do the opposite of that, because now we have an understanding of what "many"

• is, "more" than that is, and the "most" - what would be the complete opposite?

• Well, let's go literally to the complete opposite.

• If "most" is number one like you have the most, "least" could be just one.

• It means the smallest amount you can have of something.

• "I have the least amount of money."

• So, if we have three friends, and one friend has \$10, another friend has \$5, and I have

• \$1, I have the least amount.

• It doesn't mean one, because I could even say I could have \$2, which is not 1, but it's

• still the lowest of everything else.

• I'm very limited in what I have.

• Now, I started at the bottom; it might have been better if I started at the top, because

• when we say "less", we say: "little", "less", and "least".

• Well, "less" is actually what we call a reduced amount.

• "I have less than you."

• So, in this case, and this is really bizarre because there's no "er", there's nothing to

• say what the comparative is.

• Like I said here, you can look here and say: "Okay, at least it's there; it's hidden, it's

• changed, it's disguised."

• But here it's nothing; it's just "less".

• But we have to understand...

• Well, if I went here and said: "Well, there's a commonality here - everything starts with

• 'l'".

• "Less" means there's 5.

• And what's less than 5?

• I would say 3.

• And we're saying, by comparison, this is not the same as this.

• There's a reduction or there's a reduced amount.

• Now, we're going to go to "little" because I told you I'm going backwards from "most"

• to "least".

• And when we go in the middle: "not much".

• Not much.

• I was using the example of money, so I'll say that again.

• I'll use it again.

• If you had \$3, would you call that a lot of money?

• Probably not.

• You'd probably say it's a "little" money.

• And you can see here, I don't have much here.

• I have, like, you know, maybe 20 little...

• Sorry.

• 10 little things here.

• Compare it up to here, like there's 20, that's a little by comparison.

• Now, continuing here, reduced, I've gone from maybe 10-15 down to 5, and at the "least"

• I only have 1.

• Cool?

• Great.

• So, I'm going to take this lesson a little bit further and show you the last one of the

• five.

• Because we've done one, two, three, and four.

• Quickly, we know what the difference between "good", "better", "best"; "bad", "worse",

• "worst" - I love all this alliteration; words that kind of rhyme...

• Not rhyme, but go together because of the beginning words.

• "Most", "more", "many"; "little", "less", "least"; and finally, to take it to the furthest

• realm I can go, let's talk about distance.

• "Far", "farther", and "farthest".

• This is distance; length, you might say.

• How far?

• This word, here, means: How long is something from one point to another?

• "How far do you live from Canada?", "How far is it to your house?"

• How far it is away from there.

• So, we're talking about a distance that's being covered.

• Now, here's the funny thing, "far" means not close or not near.

• Easy enough, right?

• "Farther" means more.

• Remember we talked about the comparative generally has "er" and the superlative...?

• Sorry.

• Generally...

• Sorry, I must have clicked this 50 times on you.

• And then the superlative has an "est"?

• Well, on "farther", this distance-right?-we have the "er" re-introduced.

• And for "farthest" we know that "est" usually means one, and that's why I put "good bye"