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  • Hmm.

  • The One, it's probably the best book I've read in a while.

  • Hi. James from engVid.

  • Today I want to talk to you about, funny enough, The One.

  • And why I say: "The One" is usually when we talk about superlatives and comparatives,

  • the number one comes up quite often.

  • And, now, I'm not going to do your standard lesson on what the comparative is and the

  • superlative is; you probably are aware of this, but I would like to point out five exceptions

  • to the general rules.

  • So, I'm going to quickly go over the difference between comparative and superlative, and then

  • go into the exceptions.

  • Are you ready?

  • Let's go to the board.

  • So, E, you got my five for me.

  • Cool.

  • You're going to notice on the board I have the number "1" written out repetitively.

  • There's a reason for it, and we'll get into it.

  • But let's start looking at: What is a "superlative"?

  • I like to look at superlative as in Superman.

  • Superman is the best, the strongest, the fastest, la, la, la - number one.

  • So, when you think of a superlative, think of the highest or the best amount.

  • Or, because it's extreme, it could be the worst.

  • Now, I've used a couple of them already, but we're going to go to the board and get a little

  • deeper into them.

  • So, it could be number one at the top or number one at the bottom.

  • Okay?

  • "Comparative" is when we look at two things and we want to say there's a difference between

  • them.

  • "He is bigger than she is" or "James is bigger than Mr. E" - comparing the two.

  • So, with a comparative, you generally find that we add "er" to the end of the word to

  • tell you that something is being compared to something else.

  • Okay?

  • Comparative, and you'll see "er": "bigger", "smaller", "smarter", "taller".

  • Cool?

  • We got that.

  • And with a superlative, we add usually "est".

  • Right?

  • And the "est" is for the "biggest", "strongest", "longest", "fastest", and it will be the number

  • one in its category.

  • And remember what I said: It could be the number one as in the best, like the best one

  • position, or in the lowest position number one.

  • Are you ready?

  • So let's go to the board and find out what our exceptions are.

  • You might be surprised, but they're actually quite often used, and actually quite often

  • misunderstood.

  • So, the first one we're going to look at is the "best".

  • If you're from Japan, it's "ichiban"; if you're from Mexico or not even Mexico, any Latino

  • country, it's "numero uno" or we say "number one".

  • That's what the best is.

  • Kind of simple, right?

  • And we know what "good" is, because what's the opposite of "good"?

  • "Bad".

  • "Good" is something we like.

  • Now, why this is an exception is because usually, if you remember rightly, when I said "biggest",

  • we start with "big" and we go to "biggest", and we go "bigger".

  • So, we use the root word and we just add the "er" or the "est".

  • But when we look over here, if you look at my chart, increasing-meaning it's getting

  • better-there's an improvement going on - we start with the word "good".

  • That has nothing to do with the word "best".

  • Very different.

  • And this is why it's an exception; it doesn't follow the rule of: Take the root word and

  • add "er" or "est".

  • It's a completely different word, but they are related in we say something starts off

  • "good" - something you like, like 70%...

  • 75% on a test is good.

  • It's not great, but it's good, right?

  • Or 80%.

  • "Better", and this is where we talk about the improvement; "er" means a comparative...

  • A comparison, and we're looking at two different things and comparing them; while "good" is

  • 75%, "better" than that is 90%.

  • There's a difference between the two numbers; it's an improvement or an increase.

  • But the "best" would be 100%.

  • Right?

  • See, if you get 100%, you can't get much better than 100%, and we say that's the "best".

  • Now, these numbers aren't real.

  • I'm not saying each number corresponds to these things, but what I'm trying to give

  • you an idea is how they're related.

  • "Good", we like "good"; but what's better than good is something "better", or more,

  • or increase; and the "best" is number one, just like The One, my book.

  • Now, on that scale, this is good.

  • Think of an angel.

  • Right?

  • "Good", "better", "best".

  • Love you, love you, love you - angels.

  • Now, let's talk about the opposite.

  • It's my little devil; you got to have a devil.

  • So, "good" is good, so "bad", it's got to be the opposite.

  • And, once again, we talked about the exception for the comparatives and superlative rule

  • simply because "bad" and "worst" are not words that go together; they have no root.

  • The only thing that joins them together is this word here, and even still, you can't

  • see how you go from here to here.

  • That's what the problem is because students will go: "Teacher, why is it 'worst'?

  • Why is it 'bad' and 'worse'?

  • Why is it not 'bad', and 'badder', and 'baddest'?"

  • Right?

  • But these are the way we compare it in English.

  • So, "bad"...

  • If you had a test and you got 49%, you didn't quite pass, that would be pretty bad.

  • Right?

  • See, you wouldn't know what to say, that's why my little guy has no mouth.

  • He's just like: "I don't know.

  • This is bad."

  • All right?

  • But "worse" than that would be 39.

  • And if you notice, it's the complete opposite of when we talk about "good", "better", "best"

  • where the arrow is going up for improvement.

  • This is a decrease in...

  • Well, I wouldn't say "decrease".

  • This is...

  • I'm going to say de-evolution, which is a big word, but we're declining.

  • Okay?

  • We're going down from the condition of what would be it's not so good, we're going to

  • something worse that's...

  • I like even less, and then when we say "worst", it's the number one.

  • You notice here I said: "1,000,000,000 last".

  • Crazy, right?

  • What's 1,000,000,000?

  • Or, you know what?

  • Let's say this.

  • Let's say 7,000,000,000 last.

  • There's only 7 billion people on the planet, and if you're number 7 billion, you are the

  • worst.

  • So, "worst"...

  • We got...

  • Sorry, we had "bad", we go to "worst", which is the exact opposite of "good" to "best".

  • Cool?

  • And you have my little devil is showing you that.

  • This is the angelic way, you're going up; and the devil goes down.

  • All right?

  • So, I compare these two.

  • Now, let's look at the two other variables I talk are similar, yet opposites once again.

  • On this side we're going to talk about "many", "more", and "most".

  • Okay?

  • The only thing they have in common is they all start with "m".

  • Right?

  • So, if you have a lot of something, you say: "I have many friends", "I have many good books",

  • "I've been to many places".

  • Right?

  • And we mean "a lot"; it's more than one, two, or three.

  • But when we say "more", if anything is...

  • Remember we talked about there's an "er"?

  • It's almost here that we have the "er" reversed.

  • It's there, but it's reversed.

  • So, we have the "er" for the comparative, and it means there's an addition or an increase

  • from what our "many" is, so there's "more".

  • So, we have many, we know this, but I even have more than that.

  • "Many more experiences", so there's an addition or an increase on our "many".

  • So that shows the difference in a comparison between what we have and what a difference

  • is in a scale that's actually going up.

  • All right?

  • You might see, when you look here and here, there is something that they have in common,

  • in which there's something better or increase, or we think a greater amount going on.

  • When we talk about the "most", once again, we have that number one because it's the greatest

  • amount; there is not more than that.

  • "I have the most of this" - it means if there is...

  • Let's give an example.

  • 100th objects, if I have 90, it doesn't mean I have to have 100%, but I have most of it;

  • there's only 10% left over for somebody else or something else.

  • Yeah?

  • Okay?

  • So, when we talk about the "most", don't confuse it with being 100%.

  • Even when we say the "best", the best is number one.

  • When we say here, the "most", it's not exactly equivalent.

  • It means the most...

  • You can have the most at 60%; that's more than 40%.

  • Cool?

  • All right.

  • So, let's do the opposite of that, because now we have an understanding of what "many"

  • is, "more" than that is, and the "most" - what would be the complete opposite?

  • Well, let's go literally to the complete opposite.

  • If "most" is number one like you have the most, "least" could be just one.

  • It means the smallest amount you can have of something.

  • "I have the least amount of money."

  • So, if we have three friends, and one friend has $10, another friend has $5, and I have

  • $1, I have the least amount.

  • It doesn't mean one, because I could even say I could have $2, which is not 1, but it's

  • still the lowest of everything else.

  • I'm very limited in what I have.

  • Now, I started at the bottom; it might have been better if I started at the top, because

  • when we say "less", we say: "little", "less", and "least".

  • Well, "less" is actually what we call a reduced amount.

  • When we talked about "more", we talked about increasing; when we talk about "less", we

  • talk about reducing.

  • "I have less than you."

  • So, in this case, and this is really bizarre because there's no "er", there's nothing to

  • say what the comparative is.

  • Like I said here, you can look here and say: "Okay, at least it's there; it's hidden, it's

  • changed, it's disguised."

  • But here it's nothing; it's just "less".

  • But we have to understand...

  • Well, if I went here and said: "Well, there's a commonality here - everything starts with

  • 'l'".

  • "Less" means there's 5.

  • And what's less than 5?

  • I would say 3.

  • And we're saying, by comparison, this is not the same as this.

  • There's a reduction or there's a reduced amount.

  • Now, we're going to go to "little" because I told you I'm going backwards from "most"

  • to "least".

  • And when we go in the middle: "not much".

  • Not much.

  • I was using the example of money, so I'll say that again.

  • I'll use it again.

  • If you had $3, would you call that a lot of money?

  • Probably not.

  • You'd probably say it's a "little" money.

  • And you can see here, I don't have much here.

  • I have, like, you know, maybe 20 little...

  • Sorry.

  • 10 little things here.

  • Compare it up to here, like there's 20, that's a little by comparison.

  • Now, continuing here, reduced, I've gone from maybe 10-15 down to 5, and at the "least"

  • I only have 1.

  • Cool?

  • Great.

  • So, I'm going to take this lesson a little bit further and show you the last one of the

  • five.

  • Because we've done one, two, three, and four.

  • Quickly, we know what the difference between "good", "better", "best"; "bad", "worse",

  • "worst" - I love all this alliteration; words that kind of rhyme...

  • Not rhyme, but go together because of the beginning words.

  • "Most", "more", "many"; "little", "less", "least"; and finally, to take it to the furthest

  • realm I can go, let's talk about distance.

  • "Far", "farther", and "farthest".

  • This is distance; length, you might say.

  • How far?

  • This word, here, means: How long is something from one point to another?

  • "How far do you live from Canada?", "How far is it to your house?"

  • How far it is away from there.

  • So, we're talking about a distance that's being covered.

  • Now, here's the funny thing, "far" means not close or not near.

  • Easy enough, right?

  • "Farther" means more.

  • The nice thing about this is we're introducing back the "er".

  • Remember we talked about the comparative generally has "er" and the superlative...?

  • Sorry.

  • Generally...

  • Sorry, I must have clicked this 50 times on you.

  • And then the superlative has an "est"?

  • Well, on "farther", this distance-right?-we have the "er" re-introduced.

  • And for "farthest" we know that "est" usually means one, and that's why I put "good bye"