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  • Hi.

  • Welcome to www.engvid.com.

  • I'm Adam.

  • In today's video I want to talk to you about academic writing.

  • So this is especially for those of you who will be taking the IELTS or TOEFL, or any

  • English exam where you have to write an essay.

  • Okay?

  • Now, before I get into this, a lot of you have been told by teachers, by classmates,

  • by whoever that you should not use phrasal verbs in your academic writing, in your essays,

  • because you think that they are too informal.

  • Well, what I want to tell you today is that not only can you use phrasal verbs, you should

  • use phrasal verbs in your writing.

  • Phrasal verbs are part of the English language.

  • We use them in everyday situations, as well in very formal situations; in academics, in

  • business, etc.

  • So what I have here, I have a few phrasal verbs to show you that are very common, but

  • are very useful for academic writing.

  • And some of them are a little bit more rare, but if you can use them properly in your essays,

  • your scores should go up; you'll actually impress the graders a little bit.

  • But, again, if you're using them correctly.

  • Okay?

  • So just before we begin, what is a "phrasal verb"?

  • You have a verb in conjunction with a preposition; and together, the two words have a slightly

  • different meaning or slightly different meanings - most of them have more than one.

  • So, today we're going to look at: "account for", "take into account" or "take into consideration",

  • but the actual phrasal is: "take into".

  • Okay?

  • With something else.

  • "Carry out"; "look into" or "find out" - these are kind of synonyms, you can use them one

  • or the other.

  • "Cut down" or "cut back on" - these are also generally synonymous; you can use them in

  • certain...

  • In same situations; slightly different usage.

  • And...

  • Just so you know, "cut back" can also become a noun: "cutback" or "cutbacks".

  • "Do without", "follow through", "frown upon" which is a little bit one of the rare ones,

  • "resort to" which should be used more but people don't use it enough, "rule out", and

  • "put off".

  • Okay?

  • So, let's go through each one separately.

  • "Account for".

  • "To account for something" means to consider it; to make it part of your thought process

  • when you're thinking about something, especially making a plan or maybe making a budget, etc.

  • And basically it means the same thing as: "Take into account".

  • Now, you have "account" and "account".

  • This is a noun; this is a verb.

  • So, be very careful not to mix the two expressions up somehow.

  • So, "account for", and it's also part of your calculations.

  • That's why we have "account", like accountant does.

  • "Take into consideration" and "account" - same idea.

  • When you're making a plan or you're thinking about something, don't forget to include whatever

  • it is...

  • Whatever the topic is into that thinking process.

  • Right?

  • So, if you're creating a budget...

  • Let's say you have limited money, and you have to make yourself a budget for each month.

  • So, make your budget for, like, school, work, going out, food, rent, etc. but don't forget

  • to take into account or don't forget to account for emergencies or surprise expenses; things

  • that you weren't planning for that inevitably happen.

  • So: "Account for surprises in your budget calculations."

  • Okay?

  • Put a little bit extra money aside.

  • Now: "carry out".

  • "Carry out" essentially means do.

  • Okay?

  • But we use it with specific collocations.

  • And "collocations" are groupings of words that generally go together to create a particular

  • expression.

  • So, for example, you would carry out an experiment.

  • You don't do an experiment; you carry out an experiment.

  • Okay?

  • So, it means do or make happen.

  • So, for example, you have plans, you create plans for the weekend, and then the weekend

  • comes and now it's time to carry out those plans; make them happen, do them.

  • Okay?

  • "Look into" or "find out" is essentially the same meaning.

  • "Look into" means more, like, investigate; "find out" means get some more information.

  • So, you investigate in order to get the information.

  • So, in many cases you can use one or the other; but, again, don't mix them.

  • Don't "look out" or "find into"; don't mix them, which happens quite a bit.

  • So, the police, they don't look into every complaint that they get on the telephone.

  • Sometimes people call the FBI, let's say, or just the police, and they want to make

  • a complaint of something.

  • So, the police, they get so many of these phone calls that they can't look into everything;

  • they can't investigate everything.

  • They can't find out if all of these complaints are real.

  • Okay?

  • So, they investigate.

  • "Cut down" or "cut back on".

  • So, let's start with "cut down".

  • "Cut down" basically means reduce.

  • Okay?

  • So, a company wants to cut down its...

  • Its expenses.

  • It wants to reduce its expenses, so maybe it has to let go of some staff.

  • Okay?

  • It has to fire some staff.

  • "Cut back on" means also reduce, but basically do less of something.

  • "Cut down" - spend less; "cut back on", basically you're moving backwards.

  • You're still going to spend on this particular something, but you're just going to spend

  • less on it.

  • Right?

  • So, "cut back on expenses" or "cut down the company's expenses".

  • Okay?

  • Or: "the company's expenditures" is more correct.

  • "Cutbacks" are the situation.

  • When a company is experiencing cutbacks, generally it means people are going to lose their jobs

  • because the easiest cutback to make is staff salaries.

  • So, the company wants to cut back on expenses; it's going to let go a few people and salaries

  • go down, and they save money.

  • "Do without".

  • So, "do without" basically means be able to succeed or survive without something.

  • So, if you can do without it, means you'll be okay if you don't have it.

  • Okay?

  • So: "These days, people, like young people are learning math, and science, and art at

  • school, but a lot of the bigger tech companies and a lot of the bigger international companies

  • are warning parents and young people that in the future they will not be able to do

  • without some programming skills."

  • Okay?

  • Now, you can use this at the beginning, like, you can do without something, or you can put

  • it after the something.

  • Something that you cannot do without.

  • So: "Programming skills are something that young people cannot do without if they want

  • to get a good job in the future."

  • Okay?

  • So, if you're talking about employment.

  • If you can do without it, great; if you can't do without it, make sure you get it - whatever

  • "it" is.

  • Okay?

  • "Follow through" has a couple of meanings.

  • One is to complete.

  • If I started a project, I will follow it through to the end.

  • And notice I say: "Follow it through to the end" means I will continue until it's finished.

  • "Follow through" can also means to, like, keep a promise.

  • So, if I promised my friend that I will help him move this weekend, then I have to follow

  • through on that promise; I have to go and actually help him move to his new apartment.

  • So, keep a promise or complete a task.

  • Follow through on a project, follow through on one's plans, follow through on a promise.

  • Notice the collocations, there.

  • "Frown upon".

  • Now, first of all, what does "frown" mean?

  • So, the opposite of a smile is a frown.

  • So, we always say...

  • This is a smile; this is a frown.

  • Right?

  • So: "Turn that frown upside down", and you get a smile.

  • That's just for the kids, anyway.

  • So, "to frown upon" means to basically not accept something or to think something is

  • not a good thing.

  • Now, generally speaking, when you frown upon something, means that technically it's okay

  • or it's legal, or whatever, but it's frowned upon - means people don't want you to do it.

  • It's not really accepted.

  • Okay?

  • So, let's say in politics.

  • Realistically and legally, a politician can attack another politician, like, verbally;

  • not physically, obviously.

  • Verbally and in terms of ads or campaigns, etc.

  • But in many countries, this is frowned upon.

  • If you do that, people look badly at you and it's actually going to hurt you more than

  • help you.

  • You're allowed to; nobody can stop you, but it's frowned up, so better not to do it.

  • "Resort to".

  • When you resort to something, you're using this option, or this tactic, or this thing

  • that you can do as the last option.

  • So, for example, if you want to...

  • If you need to resort to something, it's usually something that you don't want to do, but you

  • have no more options.

  • So, people resort to legal action, or people resort to violence when they have nothing...

  • There's nothing else they can do.

  • Right?

  • So, for example: I live in a building and my neighbour, every weekend has a party and

  • it's really loud, and lots of people come.

  • Come to the apartment, and it really bothers me.

  • So I've gone to the neighbour and I've spoken to him, and I've asked him many times to please

  • turn down the music and invite fewer people - that didn't work.

  • I went to the landlord, I complained, I said: "This person is making too much noise."

  • Nothing changed.

  • So, finally, I resorted to calling the police.

  • I resorted to legal action.

  • I had no other choice.

  • I was trying to be nice, talking to my neighbour, but finally I had no choice; I resorted to

  • calling the police to come and do something about it.

  • "Rule out".

  • "To rule out" is to say: "Impossible.

  • This is not going to happen."

  • Okay?

  • So, especially when you're talking about negotiations, for example, in business.

  • "We're going to negotiate with you, but we're not ruling out legal action."

  • So, again, I'm using legal action.

  • I'm keeping this option available.

  • So: "not rule out" means to leave something...

  • An option available.

  • "To rule out" means to make an option not available; impossible.

  • Okay?

  • So, a lot of...

  • A lot of companies rule out the op-...

  • The opportunity to be bought out, or to pay more, or to do whatever.

  • So, I have a company and I say: "Okay, the minimum wage is $15 per hour, and I will rule

  • out any...

  • Any opposition or anybody who wants to pay less for whatever reason."

  • Okay?

  • So: "rule it out" - not going to happen.

  • "Put off".

  • I think many people know this one; it's a bit more common.

  • "To put off" basically means to postpone; to schedule for a later date.

  • So, we were supposed to have a meeting at the company today, but the...

  • The weather has been terrible, and many people are stuck in traffic or just can't get to

  • the office because of the weather, so we will put off the meeting until next week; we will

  • postpone it, we will do it again next week.

  • Now, very common phrasal verbs.

  • And yes, use these in your writing.

  • In your IELTS and TOEFL writing, use these for the essays; don't be afraid of them.

  • There's no such thing as bad English.

  • Right?

  • It's all English.

  • There are informal or slang phrasal verbs - those you should avoid.

  • Otherwise, if they're formal or neutral, absolutely use them; you're going to get a higher vocab

  • score.

  • Okay?

  • Now, if you have any questions about this, please ask me in the comment section at www.engvid.com.

  • There's a quiz as well, if you want to practice and make sure you understand the meanings

  • of these.

  • And don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel if you like the channel, and give

  • me a like.

  • And come back next week.

  • Oh, and don't forget: If you want more help and more ideas about writing for the IELTS

  • or TOEFL, don't forget to check out my site: WriteToTop.com or "Write to Top" at YouTube,

  • and you'll get a lot more help there as well.

  • Okay.

  • I'll see you next time for another lesson.

  • Bye-bye.

Hi.

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A2 phrasal frown account cut resort rule

10 Phrasal Verbs for Academic Writing in English

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    Summer posted on 2020/07/31
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