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  • Hi, welcome to engVid, I'm Adam.

  • In today's video, I'm going to start talking to you about the parts of speech.

  • Now, some of you might think this is a lesson for beginners, which it is for the most part,

  • but even if you're at the intermediate level, even if you're at the advanced level, there's

  • plenty for you to gain out of this video, so please watch how I explain and I get into

  • more detail about the different parts of speech.

  • Now, when I talk about parts of speech, what does this mean?

  • Well, every word in English has a certain category that it falls into.

  • So, if you're looking at an English sentence, every word has its part of speech, and it's

  • very important to know what the different parts of speech are when you're learning how

  • to construct sentences, okay?

  • Because you need to know what can be a subject, what can be a verb, the different types of

  • verbs, what is an adjective, what is an adverb, you need to know all these things so you can

  • start building your sentences, okay?

  • So, these are the parts of speech.

  • There's one more here, but I'm not going to worry too much about it.

  • We have nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.

  • The one that's not on here is called interjections like "Wow!"

  • "Ah!", like these sorts of sounds.

  • We're not going to worry too much about them because those are a little bit self-explanatory.

  • So, in this video, I'm going to concentrate on nouns and adjectives, okay?

  • There will be separate videos for the other conjunctions, you can find links in the description

  • box for these, and if the link is not there yet, the video is coming, just look out for

  • it and you can watch separately.

  • So again, today we're looking at nouns and adjectives.

  • Now, most English teachers, when they teach their students what a noun is, they say it's

  • a person, a place, or a thing, and that's it.

  • Then they move on to the next topic.

  • But you have to get a little bit deeper into what these things mean because there are different

  • types of ways to talk about person, there are different ways to talk about place, there

  • are different ways and different types of things, okay?

  • So, it's important to know all the different ways you can look at a noun and the different

  • forms that they take, which I'll talk about soon as well.

  • So, let's start with person.

  • What is a person?

  • So, a person doesn't just mean man, woman, or things like that, or the guy over there,

  • the girl over there.

  • Person can be a name.

  • Now, this is called a proper noun, when you're talking about a person's name, it's still

  • a person, it's still a noun, but it's a proper noun.

  • Proper nouns always take capital letters.

  • So, for example, Bill.

  • The man's name is Bill.

  • Bill is a proper noun, it takes a capital B, so we have names.

  • Pronouns are technically nouns, but as you notice, they're considered a different part

  • of speech, so I'll talk about those separately.

  • Title - now people often sometimes forget that your job title, your position in a company

  • or an organization, this is also a noun, a person noun, okay?

  • CEO, Chief Executive Officer, that's a noun.

  • Student, that's a person noun, okay?

  • Different ways to talk about people in terms of their position in an organization, in life,

  • etc.

  • I'll give you another one: retiree.

  • A retiree is an older person who has stopped working.

  • Usually at 65 years old, but again, retiree is still a noun, and just knowing that it's

  • a noun helps you place it within a sentence, okay?

  • Gender.

  • Man, woman, there's a lot of different varieties of gender these days, okay?

  • You have transgender, etc., but gender, male, female, man, woman, etc. these are still person.

  • You could think of it as a thing, but we'll talk about that separately.

  • Age.

  • So, a senior, senior can also be an adjective, which we'll talk about after this, but senior

  • can also be a noun, and you're referring to a person, according to his or her age.

  • A teen, a youth, etc., all of these are nouns, person nouns, based on their age.

  • So you can see just saying "person" is not enough.

  • There's different areas and different types of person, and the same thing for place, different

  • types and ways of looking at place.

  • Again, name.

  • The name of a place, like Paris, still a proper noun, okay, proper noun - capital.

  • Location, in the back, okay?

  • Beside something - that's preposition, we'll talk about separately.

  • In the back, in the east, in the northeast, etc.

  • If I'm looking at it as a place - sorry it's a little messy - east, for example, is a location.

  • You have abstract places.

  • Now, you can think of heaven as a place, some people believe that when they pass away, they

  • will go to heaven or to hell, depending on the person, but heaven is not a real place,

  • it's an idea, right?

  • So it's an abstract place, but it's still a place noun that you have to recognize.

  • Or, a description of a place can also be - again, the back, or the example escapes me now, but

  • I'll come back to that one anyway.

  • So, description of a place.

  • Oh, no, it's gone, okay.

  • It'll come back to me.

  • Thing, now thing is where people get lost when it comes to nouns because they don't

  • realize that thing can be so many different types of things.

  • So, first we're going to look at animate and inanimate.

  • Animate is anything that is living, okay?

  • Like animals, any animal is technically a thing.

  • Now, let's say you have a dog or a cat and you're very attached to your pet and it's

  • a part of the family and it's a male dog.

  • So, you call him "he".

  • Technically, the correct pronoun would be "it", because your dog is a thing.

  • It's an animate thing, but it is a thing.

  • It is not a person, okay?

  • So, any animal, any fish, anything that is moving, anything that is alive.

  • Again, the question between plants and animals - plants are technically living things, but

  • they don't really move, they stay in place, so they're inanimate.

  • But when we talk about inanimate, we're generally speaking about things that are not alive.

  • Table, chair, ball, court, street, all of these things are inanimate.

  • Now, generally, animate and inanimate things can be sensed by the five senses; you can

  • see them, hear them, smell them, touch them, or taste them, right?

  • So, these are the five senses, but there are many things that are abstract, okay, that

  • the five senses are - they're not accessible to the five senses, they're more in the mind.

  • They're ideas and concepts, okay?

  • So, happiness is an idea, but it's also a feeling.

  • So, all of these things are technically ideas and then the ideas can break down into further

  • categories.

  • Feeling - love.

  • Love is a noun, it is a thing, but it is not a thing that you can see or touch or taste.

  • I mean, some people say that you can but it's not - you associate certain things with love,

  • but love is just an idea.

  • It exists only in your mind, maybe in your heart, okay?

  • Happiness, same idea, it's a feeling, but these feelings are just concepts.

  • Now, money.

  • Can you actually - does money exist?

  • Well, you think "Yeah, of course, I have some in my pocket."

  • Well, if you pull the money out of your pocket, what you have is paper and metal.

  • The fact that this paper and metal has some value is just an idea.

  • Paper is paper, metal is metal.

  • Money is the idea of value added to these things, to these inanimate things, okay?

  • So, these are concepts.

  • There're also imaginary things, okay?

  • Things that you can only imagine.

  • For example, a unicorn, I'll put it here.

  • A unicorn, a unicorn is a horse with a horn, right?

  • Is it real?

  • No, I mean, I've never seen one, never even seen a picture of one [DECKARD!], so it's

  • imaginary but it's so real that we call it a thing because we can visualize it.

  • We can see it in our minds like it's a real thing, but it's an imaginary thing.

  • A quality.

  • Kindness.

  • Kindness, can you measure it?

  • Can you touch it, can you feel it?

  • No, it's just an idea, but it's an idea of a certain quality of a person, for example,

  • okay?

  • Subject.

  • Math.

  • What is math?

  • Math is just an idea, right?

  • It's putting these things like, 2+2=4.

  • Can you see two?

  • Can you touch two?

  • Can you do anything with these numbers of equations?

  • No, it's concept that we can apply to real life things in real life, but again, they're

  • just subjects.

  • They're just concepts.

  • Activities - swimming, you can do swimming, but swimming is just an idea at the end of

  • the day.

  • There's no such thing as swimming.

  • There's not dying when you get into the water because you're moving, right?

  • So, the activity itself is still a thing, right?

  • So when people say a noun is a person, place, or a thing, not enough.

  • You need to know all the different details of person, of place, of thing, and again,

  • there are other ways to describe these things, but these are the main ones that you need

  • to understand.

  • Now, when we want to use nouns, there are different ways to use them.

  • There are pure and simple nouns.

  • For example, let's just say "ball", let me use a black pen here.

  • A ball, okay?

  • You can - it's a round thing, you can hold it, you can throw it, you can catch it.

  • This is a simple noun, it's a pure noun.

  • By itself, it means the thing.

  • A gerund is an -ing noun, and it's technically - what you have to remember about gerunds

  • is that they are verbs that are changed into nouns, so they are not pure nouns.

  • You have to take an action and convert it into a thing.

  • So, for example, smoking, like for example, smoking a cigarette.

  • To smoke is the verb, smoking is the activity, there is no simple or pure noun for this activity,

  • okay?

  • There's cigarette, and then there's smoke that comes out of the cigarette, there's fire,

  • etc.

  • There's no such thing as smoke as a noun.

  • So, you have to use it as an activity and talk about it that way.

  • Then we have compound nouns.

  • When we have "basketball coach".

  • Basketball squeezed together into one word: basket - basketball, sorry, coach is the person.

  • So, you have a thing, you have a person, you put them together, and the first noun now

  • works as an adjective to the second noun, but you have - all of them are actually nouns.

  • And then you have the noun clause.

  • What you said is true.

  • "What you said", although each word has its own part of speech, the whole clause works

  • as a noun, and in this case, a noun subject, okay?

  • So, there's different ways to look at nouns, different ways to look at adjectives, different

  • ways to look at verbs.

  • So now, we're going to have a look at the adjectives and different ways to look at them

  • and understand what types of adjectives we use.

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at adjectives, but before we do that, remember I mentioned

  • noun as a place and I mentioned description.

  • So, for example, neighborhood or city, you're describing the function of a place or the

  • use of a place or the way a place looks or feels in terms of community, etc.

  • So, there's different ways to do that as well, so neighborhood, a description place, but

  • again, you can also think of it as a thing.

  • A neighborhood can also be a thing, or a city can be a thing, but generally we think of

  • these as places and nouns.

  • Anyway, glad I got that out of the way.

  • Adjectives, we're going to look at adjectives.

  • So, an adjective, or adjectives describe nouns.

  • Let me put - an adjective describes a noun.

  • So, when you have a noun, you have a person, place, or thing in different categories, and

  • you want to give a bit more information.

  • So, for example, if you want to say, "a table", well, table is not enough, because if you

  • say the word "table", I imagine a long table, rectangular, made of wood, where people sit

  • down to have a picnic outside.

  • Somebody else hears the word "table" and they think of a small square thing where you just

  • sit down to have a quick meal and go on.

  • Somebody else thinks of a glass table, somebody else thinks of a metal table.

  • So, table is just an idea, it's a thing, but it's an idea until you make it more concrete,

  • okay, or specific is another good word.

  • So, the opposite of abstract is concrete.

  • So, abstract is - could be anything.

  • Concrete is very specific, and everybody can relate to the same thing.

  • So, how do you make something abstract - how do you make an abstract noun concrete?

  • You describe it.

  • You describe it using adjectives.

  • Now, there are many different types of adjectives, but here are some that you can get started

  • with, right?

  • When you talk about the appearance of something, you can talk about shape.

  • You can talk about color.

  • You can talk about size, for example, okay?

  • All of these will describe how something looks.

  • You can even say, for example, in terms of fashion.

  • Fashionable, if you want to describe a person and you say he or she is fashionable, right

  • away I can understand, I can picture a person who is wearing nice clothes, trendy clothes,

  • etc., right?

  • So, you want to talk about appearance.

  • You want to talk about composition.

  • So, let's go back to that table.

  • I can have a wooden table, or I can have a glass table, or I can have a metal table,

  • okay, so the composition, the material, something is made of is another way to describe it,

  • right?

  • This is all composition.

  • You can also talk about measurements.

  • You can use numbers, right?

  • So, a five liter can - jug of water, let's put jug, it's better.