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  • I've been lonely, so lonely I could die.

  • Oh, sorry, that's Elvis.

  • E's crying because he's been very lonely lately.

  • He said very lonely lately.

  • Very lonely...

  • E, what do you mean: "You've been very lonely lately"?

  • Hi. James from engVid.

  • A lot of times we, in English, use time...

  • When I say time words, I'm not talking about: "when" or "while", or "after" and "before",

  • which indicate what is happening in time; if it's coming this way or that way.

  • But we have time words and time phrases, which is to give us more information than "before"

  • or "after" because they can be used more generally.

  • Example: I can say: "Before I did this video, I had dinner."

  • But if I say: "I recently had it", you know it's in memory; in the period of time in my

  • memory that's very close.

  • It's a little deeper, a little bit more knowledge or a little bit more information.

  • So, when we're looking here, I'm going to give you some phrases and some words that

  • do the same thing as "recently" does, which is more information than "before" or "after".

  • Cool?

  • Let's go to the board, and we'll find out why E is so lonely he could die.

  • [Laughs] Anyway.

  • Just as time flows, I'm going to start in the natural progression of time.

  • Past happens before, then the present is now, and the future.

  • And I'm going to try to give you a few words with each that you will find that native speakers

  • use on a regular basis to give you an idea or an impression about what kind of time they're

  • talking about.

  • And some of these things-and E gave me a really good one with "this Wednesday" and "next Wednesday"-are

  • so common that we use it that, you know, foreign speakers get confused, because they're like:

  • "What do you mean there's only one way to say?

  • Why be so specific?"

  • It's like: No, we're actually giving you more information.

  • So, let's go to the board and we'll start out with "old-fashioned".

  • This one's kind of easy, because we're talking about the past, here, because you know "old"

  • is before.

  • But you're going to say: "Old-fashioned, why?"

  • Well, when somebody says something is old-fashioned, they usually mean it's not in style anymore.

  • All right?

  • It's not modern.

  • So you can say: "This is an old-fashioned donut."

  • It doesn't mean it's bad.

  • It just means it's...

  • You know, it's from an older style or a generation prior to.

  • But when somebody says: "You have old-fashioned manners or old-fashioned language", they're

  • saying: "You know what?

  • People don't kind of use this anymore.

  • That's an old-fashioned idea."

  • Right?

  • It's kind of not being used, so we have that to the past.

  • It's usually associated with things in the past or things that are gone or should be

  • gone.

  • "Out-dated".

  • "That out-dated mode of thinking they use on a regular basis - PC talk (politically

  • correct talk)."

  • It means it's no longer used or no longer useful.

  • So, you might have this idea or you might have, I don't know.

  • My cellphone is like an S4 from Samsung.

  • I'm mentioning it for two reasons.

  • Samsung, I need a new cellphone; it's an S4.

  • And you people out there, please give me a new cellphone.

  • I'm joking.

  • I want Samsung to give me a cellphone.

  • Advertising for ya.

  • But my phone's basically out-dated.

  • It's so out-dated that they use it to...

  • Oh, I don't even have a good joke - it's that out-dated.

  • It's no longer used or useful.

  • Most new systems are at an S8 or what have you, so somethings I can't use.

  • I don't care.

  • I like my phone, to be honest.

  • Now, "out-dated" means it's just kind of, like, not being used; no longer used or useful.

  • Operative word or the word that's important is not...

  • "Not useful" means it's not as convenient as something that would be new.

  • The word you don't want to hear someone say to you is "obsolete".

  • All right?

  • If this is obsolete, it is no longer used.

  • Yes.

  • Old credit cards.

  • You know, you don't pay it?

  • It becomes obsolete; you can't use it no more.

  • Bad example.

  • Obsolete - dinosaurs.

  • Ever seen one?

  • Mm-mm - you don't.

  • Birds is as close as we got to them; they gone.

  • They're obsolete.

  • That technology or that biological technology is no longer used, people.

  • We are the new ones.

  • Being the...

  • So, now time to move to the present.

  • What present...?

  • Present day forms do we use to explain what's going on in the present?

  • A lot of you guys will know: "now" or "present", because these are the two words you've been

  • taught.

  • Have you ever been confused when someone says to you: "Nowadays, the kids wear their jeans

  • down by their butts"?

  • You're like: "What?

  • What do you mean, 'nowadays'?

  • You mean today?"

  • Like: "No.

  • Nowadays."

  • It means at the present and it is different from the past.

  • When anyone says to you: "nowadays", they're literally saying the days today are different

  • than the days before.

  • Right?

  • You know.

  • "I know it's old-fashioned that a man should pull up his pants and wear a belt.

  • Right?

  • Should pull the pants up.

  • Nowadays, the children have the pants down their ass."

  • You know, it's like: What?

  • It's like: "Well, today is different than the past.

  • Nowadays".

  • And it's not a day; it's a period of time.

  • So they're saying in recent memory from, you know, two, three, four years, or two...

  • Yeah, two, three, four years, or two/three months.

  • But usually it's a longer period of time in the present and it's not one point; it's a

  • bubble you could say.

  • All right?

  • So, bridges the past and the present; saying there's a difference between the past and

  • the present and it goes over a period of time.

  • "Lately".

  • Haven't seen you around here lately.

  • E, where you been lately?

  • And this is the one he used here.

  • And this one means not long ago.

  • I haven't seen E lately.

  • It means maybe in the last hour or two.

  • With "nowadays" we're talking maybe a year or two, maybe even at 10 years; "lately" means

  • recently.

  • Right?

  • Not too long ago.

  • You know?

  • I haven't...

  • I haven't had a Starbucks lately.

  • That could in a week or two or a month.

  • You're not talking years.

  • All right?

  • So, watch these.

  • You can use these for different things, so you have a greater expression of present time

  • and more of a recent expression of present time.

  • Now, here's one of my favourite: Notice how these are "lately" and "latest"?

  • Seems similar; very different.

  • "Latest" means most recent.

  • It means the newest thing.

  • The latest Apple computer can make coffee for you.

  • The latest Apple computer; not the lately one.

  • The latest.

  • It means newest.

  • It's like a superlative.

  • Right?

  • "Newest", "most", "best", "biggest", "latest".

  • It is the newest thing out there.

  • So, when talking the present, we can say: "The latest thing.

  • Have you heard the latest news?"

  • It means the newest news.

  • "Lately the news hasn't been very good" - in recent memory.

  • "The news nowadays", it means maybe this year or the last four years.

  • Very different periods of time.

  • So, we go from now, a bit more than now, to longer periods and we're still talking about

  • now.

  • Cool.

  • Now you've expanded your vocabulary, let's move to the future.

  • Now, the future has a couple of constructions that are really difficult, and I understand

  • it's difficult for students to get because when we learn these phrases, it's just part

  • of something we watch and see; we don't think too much about it.

  • And the constructions of the sentences make it actually hard for people to get.

  • So, I'm going to start with a point here.

  • These two here and then go up to this one.

  • Bear with me and I'll get there for you.

  • Okay.

  • So, when you have one and two...

  • Okay?

  • Number two is next to one, so it's the next one.

  • When we say: "The next day", we mean not day number one, but day number two.

  • So it's one extra day.

  • "I'll do it the next day or the day...

  • Next..."

  • Sorry.

  • I'll do it the next day.

  • "A week from now" is similar to that.

  • Now, I know you know "now", so let's take this one and write "now".

  • Okay?

  • Now, when we do: "a week from now", that's going to be one week is here, so the difference

  • is one week from whenever that period of time is.

  • "Now" is...

  • Let's say today is Friday.

  • Now it's Friday.

  • So, one week from now will be next Friday; a one-week difference.

  • One plus.

  • Cool?

  • So, in this case, when we talk about these two: "a week from now", we're talking about

  • adding one week to the day we're talking about.

  • When we say: "the next day" we mean literally the next day, and we can follow the one, two

  • example.

  • Not today; that day here.

  • From here, this day is Friday - one week from now will be the next Friday.

  • We're good with that?

  • Good, because now is when it gets complicated.

  • Well, actually, not really.

  • We're going to start with this one.

  • Actually let's start with this one to make it easy.

  • We'll start with "tomorrow".

  • Okay?

  • So let's go back up here.

  • And you know what "tomorrow" means, right?

  • It's not today, but tomorrow.

  • So when you have "tomorrow"...

  • I'm going to write "tom." for short for "tomorrow".

  • This one says: "The day after tomorrow".

  • Well, here's today.

  • Okay?

  • And remember we talked about this is one and this is two?

  • This is tomorrow.

  • What would be after tomorrow?

  • Three.

  • All right?

  • And this is after tomorrow, so we're going to hear "after".

  • So, the day after tomorrow is really two days from now.

  • Today...

  • Not today, but tomorrow.

  • And after tomorrow is the third day, which means two days from now.

  • English people usually say that.

  • They'll go: "You know, the day after tomorrow we'll do it."

  • Two days from now.

  • Now you understand that, we're going to go to the next one which seems even harder: "The

  • week after next".

  • It's the exact same thing, except we're talking about weeks as opposed to days.

  • Let's go back to the board.

  • Okay?

  • So, we're going to say: "after".

  • Okay?

  • So we're talking about a week, which was number one.

  • Right?

  • After that would be two, and then we have this funny word: "next", which would be three.

  • Well, we know three minus one equals what?

  • Two.

  • So, not this week; it's after that by a week, and then it's next.

  • So we're talking about two weeks from now.

  • And you're going to go: "James, hold on a second.

  • That's exactly the same as 'the day after tomorrow'."

  • Like, yeah, except: "The day after tomorrow" is talking about days; "the week after next"

  • is talking about weeks.

  • A longer time period, but the concept or idea is the same.

  • There is a difference...

  • There is a difference of two.

  • Why we use it - I don't know, because it's just as easy to say: "two weeks from now",

  • "two days from now".

  • But it's not why we use it that's important.

  • What's important is that you understand it when someone sends you a business note or