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  • Even if you're the cleverest person

  • in the world,

  • you still need to refer

  • to other people's work

  • when writing assignments.

  • And you need to acknowledge

  • the source.

  • You can't let the

  • reader think these words

  • and ideas came from you.

  • That would be plagiarism,

  • which is bad news.

  • So, let's imagine you've found

  • some really good sources.

  • What next?

  • How do you use these sources

  • in your work?

  • Most importantly,

  • you always need to reference the source.

  • You do this whether quoting,

  • paraphrasing

  • or summarising.

  • We'll look at those in a moment.

  • But first off,

  • how do you reference

  • someone else's work

  • in your writing?

  • You can give

  • a short reference in the main text,

  • like this,

  • including the author's name and

  • the year the

  • source was published.

  • And at the end of the essay

  • you include more information

  • about the source material.

  • For example:

  • author's name,

  • year of publication,

  • title and chapter of the book or journal,

  • publisher,

  • place of publication.

  • What to write varies among

  • different institutions, so check

  • your own requirements.

  • Now, we're referencing

  • economist Adam Smith's book

  • The Wealth of Nations.

  • He originally wrote this:

  • "The rich consume little

  • more than the poor,

  • and in spite of their natural selfishness

  • and rapacity

  • they divide with the poor

  • the produce of all their improvements..."

  • Quite long isn't it?

  • And complicated.

  • So we can summarise it.

  • We take only the main ideas

  • and express them

  • in a shorter form.

  • "… and thus, without intending it,

  • without knowing it,

  • advance the interests

  • of the society,

  • and afford means

  • to the multiplication of the species."

  • A related skill is paraphrasing.

  • Here, you take a short section

  • and rewrite it in your

  • own words.

  • Let's look at Adam Smith again.

  • Take a good look at this:

  • "The rich are led

  • by an invisible hand

  • to make nearly the same distribution

  • of the necessaries

  • of lifeamong all its inhabitants."

  • We can paraphrase like this:

  • "Smith (1776) believes

  • an unseen force

  • guides the wealthy,

  • which ensures wealth is shared

  • out almost equally in society."

  • See how the words changed?

  • And we also changed the grammar.

  • For example, from passive voice

  • to active.

  • Remember, your writing should

  • always be as clear as possible.

  • What about quoting?

  • Well, Adam Smith's theory

  • is best known as

  • the 'invisible hand' theory.

  • It would be strange

  • to paraphrase this to

  • the 'unseen force' theory.

  • So when the source

  • material has expressed something

  • in a particularly interesting

  • or convincing way,

  • we often prefer

  • to quote directly.

  • For example:

  • "Adam Smith's view is

  • that the wealthy

  • "are led by an invisible hand",

  • which ensures their

  • wealth is shared out

  • through society."

  • But be careful not

  • to rely on quotes too much.

  • You should use them to

  • back up your point,

  • not to make the argument.

  • Remember to use

  • your own words

  • to express the main point, and

  • then use the quote as evidence.

  • And, if you're being asked

  • to discuss, evaluate

  • or compare,

  • remember to include alternative

  • points of view.

  • There we go.

  • Follow these tips

  • to help you write strong essays

  • and avoid plagiarism.

  • After all,

  • you are the

  • cleverest person in the world.

Even if you're the cleverest person

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B1 adam smith smith adam invisible plagiarism source material

Study Skills – Using sources

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/07/01
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