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  • Neil: Welcome to 6 Minute English, where we

  • bring you an intelligent topic and six related

  • items of vocabulary. I'm Neil.

  • Tim: And I'm Tim. And today we're talking

  • about AI - or Artificial Intelligence.

  • Neil: Artificial Intelligence is the ability

  • of machines to copy human intelligent behaviour

  • - for example, an intelligent machine can

  • learn from its own mistakes, and make decisions

  • based on what's happened in the past.

  • Tim: There's a lot of talk about AI these

  • days, Neil, but it's still just science fiction,

  • isn't it?

  • Neil: That's not true - AI is everywhere.

  • Machine thinking is in our homes, offices,

  • schools and hospitals. Computer algorithms

  • are helping us drive our cars. They're diagnosing

  • what's wrong with us in hospitals. They're

  • marking student essays. They're telling us

  • what to read on our smartphones.

  • Tim: Well, that really does sound like science

  • fiction - but it's happening already, you

  • say, Neil?

  • Neil: It's definitely happening, Tim. And

  • an algorithm, by the way, is a set of steps

  • a computer follows in order to solve a problem.

  • So can you tell me what was the name of the

  • computer which famously beat world chess champion

  • Garry Kasparov using algorithms in 1997? Was

  • it: a) Hal, b) Alpha 60 or c) Deep Blue?

  • Tim: I'll say Deep Blue. Although I'm just

  • guessing.

  • Neil: Was it an educated guess, Tim?

  • Tim: I know a bit about chess...

  • Neil: An educated guess is based on knowledge

  • and experience and is therefore likely to

  • be correct. Well, we'll find out later on

  • how educated your guess was in this case, Tim!

  • Tim: Indeed. But getting back to AI and what

  • machines can do - are they any good at solving

  • real-life problems? Computers think in zeros

  • and ones don't they? That sounds like a pretty

  • limited language when it comes to life experience!

  • Neil: You would be surprised to what those

  • zeroes and ones can do, Tim. Although you're

  • right that AI does have its limitations at

  • the moment. And if something has limitations

  • there's a limit on what it can do or how good

  • it can be.

  • Tim: OK - well now might be a good time to

  • listen to Zoubin Bharhramani, Professor of

  • Information Engineering at the University

  • of Cambridge and deputy director of the Leverhulme

  • Centre for the Future of Intelligence. He's

  • talking about what limitations AI has at the

  • moment.

  • Zoubin Bharhramani: I think it's very interesting

  • how many of the things that we take for granted

  • - we humans take for granted - as being sort

  • of things we don't even think about like how

  • do we walk, how do we reach, how do we recognise

  • our mother. You know, all these things. When

  • you start to think how to implement them on

  • a computer, you realise that it's those things

  • that are incredibly difficult to get computers

  • to do, and that's where the current cutting

  • edge of research is.

  • Neil: If we take something for granted we

  • don't realise how important something is.

  • Tim: You sometimes take me for granted,

  • think, Neil.

  • Neil: No - I never take you for granted, Tim!

  • You're far too important for that!

  • Tim: Good to hear! So things we take for granted

  • are doing every day tasks like walking, picking

  • something up, or recognising somebody. We

  • implement - or perform - these things without

  • thinking. Whereas it's cutting edge research

  • to try and program a machine to do them.

  • Neil: Cutting edge means very new and advanced.

  • It's interesting isn't it, that over ten years

  • ago a computer beat a chess grand master - but

  • the same computer would find it incredibly

  • difficult to pick up a chess piece.

  • Tim: I know. It's very strange. But now you've

  • reminded me that we need the answer to today's

  • question.

  • Neil: Which was: What was the name of the

  • computer who famously beat world chess champion

  • Gary Kasparov in 1997? Now, you said Deep

  • Blue, Tim, and... that was the right answer!

  • Tim: You see, my educated guess was based

  • on knowledge and experience!

  • Neil: Or maybe you were just lucky. So, the

  • IBM supercomputer Deep Blue played against

  • US world chess champion Garry Kasparov in

  • two chess matches. The first match was played

  • in Philadelphia in 1996 and was won by Kasparov.

  • The second was played in New York City in

  • 1997 and won by Deep Blue. The 1997 match

  • was the first defeat of a reigning world chess

  • champion by a computer under tournament conditions.

  • Tim: Let's go through the words we learned

  • today. First up was 'artificial intelligence'

  • or AI - the ability of machines to copy human

  • intelligent behaviour.

  • Neil: 'There are AI programs that

  • can write poetry.'

  • Tim: Do you have any examples you can recite?

  • Neil: Afraid I don't! Number two - an algorithm

  • is a set of steps a computer follows in order

  • to solve a problem. For example, 'Google changes

  • its search algorithm hundreds of times every year.'

  • Tim: The adjective is algorithmic - for example,

  • 'Google has made many algorithmic changes.'

  • Neil: Number three - if something has 'limitations',

  • there's a limit on what it can do or how good

  • it can be. 'Our show has certain limitations

  • ' for example, it's only six minutes long!'

  • Tim: That's right - there's only time to present

  • six vocabulary items. Short but sweet!

  • Neil: And very intelligent, too. OK, the next

  • item is 'take something for granted', which

  • is when we don't realise how important something is.

  • Tim: 'We take our smartphones for granted

  • these days, but before 1995 hardly anyone

  • owned one.'

  • Neil: Number five - 'to implement' means to

  • perform a task, or take action.

  • Tim: 'Neil implemented some changes to the show.'

  • Neil: The final item is 'cutting edge' - new

  • and advanced - 'This software is cutting edge.'

  • Tim: 'The software uses cutting edge technology.'

  • Neil: OK - that's all we have time for on

  • today's cutting edge show. But please check

  • out our Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube

  • pages. Tim: Bye-bye!

  • Neil: Goodbye!

Neil: Welcome to 6 Minute English, where we

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B1 chess ai granted cutting edge computer deep blue

Learn to talk about computers in 6 minutes

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/07/01
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