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  • (Ding)

  • (electric guitar music)

  • - One of the coolest things I've discovered

  • about circuits is, circuitry can be an art form.

  • If I have a creative idea,

  • I can get that creative idea out using circuits.

  • So, if you have ideas, you can use technology to make

  • those ideas come to life.

  • Every input or output of a computer is effectively

  • a type of information, which can be represented

  • by on or off electrical signals.

  • Or one's and zero's.

  • In order to process the information that comes in,

  • as input, and the make the information that's output.

  • A computer needs to modify and combine the input signals.

  • To do this, a computer uses millions of tiny electronic

  • components, which come together to form circuits.

  • (upbeat music)

  • - Let's take a closer look at how circuits can modify

  • and process information that's represented

  • in one's and zero's.

  • This is an incredibly simple circuit.

  • It takes an electrical signal, on or off, and it flips it.

  • So, if the signal you give it is a one,

  • the circuit gives it a zero.

  • And if you give the circuit a zero, it gives you a one.

  • The signal that goes in, is not the same as the signal

  • that comes out.

  • And so, we call the circuit, not.

  • - More complicated circuits can take multiple signals

  • and combine them, and give you a different result.

  • In this example, a circuit will take two electrical signals.

  • Now, each one might be a one or a zero.

  • If either of the signals coming in is a zero,

  • then the result is also a zero.

  • This circuit will only give you a one

  • if the first signal and the second signal are both a one.

  • And so, we call this circuit, and.

  • There are many small circuits like this,

  • that perform simple, logical calculations.

  • But connecting these circuits together,

  • we can make more complex circuits

  • that perform more complex calculations.

  • For example, you can make a circuit that adds two bits

  • together called, an adder.

  • This circuit takes in two individual bits, each one, a one

  • or a zero, and adds them together to calculate the sum.

  • The sum can be zero plus zero equals zero,

  • zero plus one equals one, or one plus one equals two.

  • You need two wires coming out because it can take up to two

  • binary digits to represent the sum.

  • Once you have a single adder for adding two bits of

  • information, you can put together multiples of these adder

  • circuits side by side to add together much larger numbers.

  • - For example, here's how an eight bit

  • adder adds the numbers 25 and 50.

  • Each number is represented using eight bits

  • resulting in 16 different electrical signals

  • that go into the circuit.

  • The circuit for an eight bit adder has lots of little adders

  • inside of it, which together, calculate the sum.

  • Different electrical circuits can perform other simple

  • calculations like subtraction or multiplication.

  • In fact, all the information processing your computer does

  • it's just lots and lots

  • of small simple operations put together.

  • Each individual operation done by a computer

  • is so, so simple, it could be done by a human.

  • But these circuits inside computers are way, way faster.

  • - Back in the day, these circuits were big and clunky.

  • An an eight bit adder could be as big as a fridge

  • and it would take minutes for them

  • to perform a simple calculation.

  • Today, computer circuits are microscopic in size

  • and way, way faster.

  • Why are smaller computers also faster?

  • - Well, because the smaller the circuit is,

  • the less distance the electrical signal has to go.

  • Electricity moves at just about the speed of light

  • which is why modern circuits can perform

  • billions of calculations per second.

  • - So, whether you're playing a game, recording a video,

  • or exploring the cosmos, everything you can possibly do with

  • technology requires lots of information

  • to be processed extremely quickly.

  • Underneath all this complexity,

  • is just lots of teeny little circuits that turn binary

  • signals into websites and videos, music and games.

  • These circuits can even help us

  • decode DNA to diagnose and cure disease.

  • (upbeat music)

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B2 US circuit adder signal electrical computer sum

Khan Academy and Code.org | Circuits & Logic

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    Henry 楊 posted on 2020/06/07
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