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  • our brains expend 20% off our body's energy onesies.

  • This is the highest among the great apes.

  • It is also the highest among all our other organs, including the kidneys, the muscles, off movement and even the heart.

  • All brains expend a lot off energy.

  • But why?

  • We humans are so distinct among other mama's, because being human and being smart cost a load off energy.

  • We plan our lives.

  • We communicate with each other.

  • We have thousands of internal thoughts per day, we think, by transferring information using electrical signals throughout the elaborate, interconnected network off cables inside our brain.

  • Our brain is an electrified organ, and electrical signals are highly expensive.

  • But being being human and being smart not only cost energy but also comes with a price.

  • The price of suffering from brain disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

  • We still don't know what is the cause of these diseases, but my research has led me to suggest that the most decisive and deceptively simple factor is that big brain cells burn a lot off energy.

  • I'm a brain and shelter and for years have focused on the study of Parkinson's disease.

  • Parkinson's is a debilitating condition that affects mostly the motor abilities off the individual.

  • Any one of us in this room could be afflicted with Parkinson's at any time in five years.

  • Two of us in 20 years, 15 of us over a 1,000,000 of Americans and 10 millions of people worldwide suffer from it.

  • I was exposed to the pure science of Pakistan's disease at the University of Oxford as a researcher embarking on a new career.

  • I was certainly excited to think about the mechanisms off the disease.

  • But when I saw those afflicted individual's visiting our love, I was struck by a sense of urgency because behind basic science, these were real people with a profound me to understand what they're suffering from an aerial hoax for alleviating the suffering they now had a new and firm research cops'll tow connect the macroscopic A ll symptoms of the disease with a microscopic observation that excellent research in partners has offered us since 18 17 when James Parkinson first described they are a of symptoms off the disease named after his name.

  • Scientists have been studying the disease, focusing on the biological aspects of the condition, meaning the miss folding off proteins, the genetic factors or the patient of dopamine.

  • But my team and I have taken a different approach.

  • I look at the problem in terms of energy and in terms, off brain connections.

  • And then I looked at where the problem begins, and it begins on the level off single brain cells that we call neurons.

  • We don't know why diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease our neurodegenerative.

  • This means that the individual is losing brain cells is losing neurons.

  • We don't know why these neurons die, but we do know that dime your ins have a consistent feature in common.

  • They're a big and complex, If you'd like to imagine in Europe picture of the house you live in now fill it in with millions off light sockets.

  • Connecting these light sockets makes a network off electrical cables.

  • Some off.

  • The electrical cables are short, some are long.

  • Some car.

  • A huge power loads.

  • Other curry.

  • Hardly.

  • Anatole, this electrical cables are your neurosis.

  • My team and I wanted to examine how much it would take to transfer the lift off information that is a single electrical impulse throughout the brain's network.

  • So a billet, a realistic computational model off a neuron, emphasizing the cables specifically I more than a dopamine urine.

  • Because these neurons are selectively dying in Parkinson's disease, the cable's off one dopamine neurons inside the human brain may be up to five meters long.

  • If we could sum up all the cables off all our document in your ins, it's halfway the distance from California to New York.

  • I kept all the concepts we knew about document insurance, and I put them together in a new mathematical way.

  • And I ran my model.

  • What we found waas that dopamine neuron swallow energy in what is called the rich get richer effect.

  • The bigger the dopamine your is, the higher the expenses.

  • And since the brain will be the first organ to suffer from energetic Serge, those parts of the brain that will sense these energetic shirt will be neurons that have high energy expenses, meaning neurons with long and complex cables like the palm endurance.

  • Dopamine neurons are Celeste's, susceptible to die and fail simply because it cost them a lot off energy just to exist.

  • To go back to the house metaphor, your air conditioner is larger than your blender, and it uses a lot more energy when you plug it in in the summertime and your household has a sudden need for more energy, The first thing that we can count will be your air conditioner.

  • So why Where does our model is that lead us.

  • It lead us to think that dopamine neurons are self aware off their size and their energy demands.

  • It's like these neurons know how big they are, and they know they need more energy.

  • When demand exceeds supply, they slowly shut down.

  • The air conditioner burns out so the rest of the house keep harming.

  • But well, we can't replace our air conditioner.

  • We cannot replace our neurons.

  • So what can we do?

  • Well, if our results and predictions are correct, maybe we can in Europe, protect our brain cells by finding that fuse box for each neuron and figure it out how much energy it's urine can take.

  • Then we could beat very specific models and come up with what is called energetic fennel type, a detailed profile off our individual energy needs and then make what is called personalized medicine for people with Parkinson's, perhaps designed that drug that will target the fuse box off each neuron and we'll turn it off every time.

  • The neuron.

  • It's getting a little tired.

  • It is an amazingly complex problem, but it's certainly worth pursuing it, because behind science, there are real people in real suffering.

  • James Parkinson Describe the disease first at 18 17 2 centuries ago.

  • This here Now imagine someone from your life having Parkinson's or actor met Michael J.

  • Fox the last time you saw him talk, so we have made progress.

  • But have we been so far?

  • Let's model a future where diseases like Parkinson's we're very quickly be in our past.

  • Thank you very much.

our brains expend 20% off our body's energy onesies.

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B1 parkinson energy brain dopamine disease neuron

A mathematical model for predicting Parkinson’s | Eleftheria Pissadaki | TED Institute

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/04/04
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