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  • Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History.

  • So we're going to turn our attention now to the Industrial Revolution, one of the most

  • significant developments in human history.

  • Like, imagine with me that it's 1820.

  • I got this idea from the economist Robert Gordon by the way.

  • You live in, say, England.

  • You probably work in agriculture.

  • When you walk to town, you're either pulling your own cart, or if you're lucky you have

  • a horse.

  • You have no running water or electricity.

  • When you wash your few items of clothing, you do so by hand.

  • You cook over a fire.

  • You think of time not primarily in minutes and hours, but mostly in relationship to solar

  • cycles--how close it is to night, or to morning, or to midwinter.

  • And in all these respects, your life in 1820 is basically identical to the lives of people

  • in 1720, or 1520, or for that matter 1220.

  • That's not to say life hasn't changed in those hundreds of years--as we've explored

  • in this series, lots has changed--but as Gregory Clark observed, in terms of standard of living,

  • Europeans in 1800 basically led lives similar to those of Neandrathals.

  • Now imagine that you close your eyes in 1820 and wake up in 1920.

  • By now, most people in England do not work in agriculture.

  • They may work in shops, or transportation, or mining, oe workshops, or in factories.

  • They measure time in minutes.

  • Cars exist.

  • Some people have radios, which transmitted information through thin air.

  • A few people even have refrigerators, which dramatically decrease food spoilage and the

  • risk of foodborne illness.

  • Occasionally you might even see an airplane flying in the sky.

  • Oh, and also, your country has just emerged from an astonishingly deadly war fought with

  • highly lethal weapons such as chlorine gas, weapons that people of 1820 could not possibly

  • have imagined.

  • Welcome to the Industrial Revolution.

  • [Intro] In this series, we've already talked about

  • revolutions in agriculture that increased European productivity and revolutions in trade

  • that increasingly distributed goods among people in towns and cities instead of having

  • each individual family produce everything it needed.

  • And these forces combined to help create more division of labor: like, farmers could focus

  • on farming, and textile workers could focus on textile creation, which was more efficient

  • than having each family do every kind of work.

  • So let's begin in the eighteenth century, when European industrial production is said

  • to have begun.

  • Europe's population was growing after centuries of non-stop wars, plagues, and the worst of

  • the little ice age.

  • Meanwhile, products such as coffee, tea, and chocolate made with heated water killed bacteria,

  • while products from abroad expanded and varied the pool of nutrients, with corn and potatoes,

  • for instance, generally more calorie-dense per acre than wheat.

  • In short, lives were getting longer and populations rising.

  • This meant that on average people had a little more time to learn, tinker, and experiment.

  • Many different artisans invented small improvements to existing mechanical devices.

  • Perhaps most famously, John Kay's flying shuttle increased the pace and productivity

  • of weaving.

  • Weavers then needed a greater amount of thread.

  • So tinkerers made that happen by producing inventions such as the spinning jenny, created

  • around 1764 by craftsman James Hargreaves.

  • The spinning jenny was a machine used by individual women working at home.

  • And it allowed a person, using just the power of their hand, to spin not one bobbin of thread,

  • but up to 120 at once.

  • In England, Ellen Hacking and her husband John were among those devising carding machines

  • to straighten cotton and wool fibers for spinning.

  • And at about the same time, Richard Arkwright and his partners invented the water frame,

  • another kind of spinning machine that used water power.

  • And when spinning machines could be linked to a central power source such as water, many

  • could be placed in a single building.

  • So, the world's first factories arose in part from the pressure to increase production

  • of English cloth for global and domestic markets.

  • Did the center of the world just open?

  • Is one of my Polo shirts in there?

  • This cost like $41.

  • Twice a year I go to a Polo outlet in Southern Indiana and just buy as many of these things

  • as they'll sell to me.

  • And look, I'm not here to advertise Polo shirts, but this thing is incredibly comfortable,

  • and also, it's like dyed a specific color.

  • Everything about this was completely unimaginable in the early nineteenth century.

  • In fact, you know what?

  • It's so soft to the touch, I think I'm going to put it on.

  • Is that weird.

  • Oh yeah!

  • I feel like I'm the bad guy in an 80s movie.

  • How do I look, Stan?

  • Oh, Stan says I look like Steve Bannon.

  • OK.

  • Thus ends that experiment, now back to the show.

  • Let's talk about porcelain.

  • Another tinkerer was the alchemist Johann Friedrichttger who promised the king of

  • Saxony that he could figure out how to make porcelain.

  • Porcelain was such an obsession that wealthy people collected it and even those with far

  • less would try to buy a piece or two—a cup or plateas we see in many Dutch, French,

  • and other paintings.

  • Two things you see a lot in European paintings of the affluent or those who aspired to affluence:

  • porcelain and pineapples, which were also quite rare and expensive and difficult to

  • produce domestically.

  • Porcelain was also practical, because Europeans did not know other ways to make heat resistant

  • dishware for their hot drinks.

  • Sottger was virtually imprisoned until around 1708 when he figured out how to make

  • porcelain, although not as beautifully as the Chinese or Japanese did.

  • What we're trying to get at here is that while people love a great story of an inventor

  • and their invention, the Industrial Revolution was the story of lots and lots of people working

  • together, making a series of incremental improvements, rather than, like, geniuses from on high creating

  • amazing things.

  • The real genius of humans is collaboration, and also spying.

  • Like for instance, Industrial spies helped with every development because other regions

  • were far more advanced than Europe in manufacturing, for instance, color fast dyes and heat-resistant

  • dishware, fine weaving and spinning, or even metallurgy.

  • Arkwright, for example, mostly copied designs from imported textiles.

  • And it was those cotton textiles that caught the imagination of consumers and filled pockets,

  • first of the people who imported textiles from India and China, and then of the daring

  • manufacturers who were successful at copying the lightweight, and colorful, and washable

  • cotton clothing.

  • But industrial production of cotton was really riskythe rate of business failure during

  • the Industrial Revolution was over 50 percent.

  • Because of that, experimenting manufacturers worked to keep labor costs as low as they

  • could.

  • One way was to use unpaid orphans from government, religious or charitable institutions as labour.

  • At a time when people didn't know a lot about steam powered machinery and its dangers,

  • industrial accidents happened all the time, and children were often the victims.

  • Children worked incredibly long hours and deaths were common.

  • Little Mary Richards was caught up in a machine and six- and seven- year old orphans working

  • alongside her witnessed the quotebones of her arms, legs, thighs, etc successively

  • snap... her head appeared dashed to pieces... her blood thrown about like water from a twirled

  • mop.”2 Now I know that's very graphic, but I think

  • it's important to understand the extent of industrial oppression, including the industrial

  • oppression of children.

  • Workers lost arms, eyes, breasts, and fingers or were otherwise disfigured.

  • Production and profits came first to avoid financial ruin.

  • And industry had other repercussions.

  • It initially increased the demand for slaves even more.

  • Slaves produced food for workers who had left farms for factories.

  • Slaves also produced tropical crops such as sugar, and tobacco, and coffee that boosted

  • the energy of many types of workers.

  • And slaves provided the palm and other tropical oils to keep machinery running as well as

  • the raw materials for industry, especially cotton.

  • It's important to understand that industry thrived due to slave labor and inexpensive

  • child labor, and also through the labor of women, who were paid less than men.

  • Over time, more and more people began working in industrialized settings, or in economic

  • sectors that supported industry due in part to the development of the steam engine.

  • In 1776, English inventor James Watt launched a steam engine that improved earlier models.

  • Now as far back as Roman Egypt and then Ottoman Egypt and China, people had known about steam

  • engines, But Watt's engine was more efficient, which made it useful in replacing animal and

  • water power, not just in mines but also powering textile factories, and then other machinery.

  • For millennia, almost all human power came from our muscles.

  • Then we harnessed some animal power, and eventually some wind and water power.

  • But steam power completely revolutionized how much work could be done on behalf of humans,

  • and also of course changed transportation when it was attached to covered and uncovered

  • wagons and ships to make trains and steamships and eventually automobiles.

  • And the train created another kind of demand: as urbanization soared around railway hubs,

  • small and grand train stations were built along with all the other buildings to house

  • the railway's primary and secondary employees.

  • By secondary employees I mean, it wasn't just station-masters, ticket-sellers, and

  • conductors, there was a need for shopkeepers, and pharmacists, and construction workers,

  • and teachers, and doctors, and and drivers of coaches, not to mention sanitation workers,

  • police, and urban administrators.

  • Industrialization had a snowball effect and it wasn't gonna be turned back.

  • And all this mean that everyday life also transformed.

  • Two classes became prominent alongside the aristocracy and peasants in the social structure:

  • the bourgeoisie and proletariat or working class.

  • The bourgeoisie initially referred to people who lived in towns and cities or burgs/bourgs.

  • But the term came to refer to those who owned factories, banks, transportation networks,

  • and large tracts of land for raising livestock and crops.

  • The proletariat comprise the many factory and other workers who lacked tools or land

  • to support themselves but instead rather labored for factory owners and others who had the

  • means to produce.

  • In between were the rising professional groups, called the middle class in Europe: the doctors,

  • lawyers, teachers, and others with special skills that serviced society as a whole.

  • We will see this configuration change over the next two centuries and watch tensions

  • unfold among these groups, and at times boil over.

  • Women also experienced a transformation of everyday life.

  • In the preceding centuries, they had generally worked on farms or in workshops alongside

  • their artisan husbands or on their own as hatmakers, and seamstresses, and weavers,

  • and spinners.

  • During the early days of industrialization, women who had been spinning or weaving at

  • home often switched to factories.

  • And they did many other kinds of work; for example, eighteen-year-old Ann Eggly with

  • her younger sister worked twelve-hour days in the coal mines pushing carriages filled

  • with 800 pounds of coal (which was then used to make steam power).

  • She had done this kind of work since she was seven.

  • I don't know if you know any seven year olds, but they should not be working in coal

  • mines.

  • Now you'll recall that the French and American revolutions, with their emphasis on motherhood

  • and laws stripping women of their property, led to women being discouraged from work.

  • But many continued to do so even when their wages belonged to their husbands.

  • Factories also created (and still create) outwork done by women at home: polishing knives

  • or painting porcelain buttons for example.

  • But, ideology simultaneously shifted to say that women were to beangels in the household,”

  • providing comfort from the horrors of industrial life, a cultural norm that discouraged work

  • outside the home.

  • In the meantime, the classes became aware of their individual identities.

  • The French had outlawed guilds during the revolution.

  • Industrial and other workers formed their own clubs to protect their interests.

  • They created singing, gymnastic, and sports clubs--this is why early English football

  • teams had names like Royal Engineers AFC and Civil Service FC.

  • These groups often had a lively cafe culture, where they discussed politics and read newspapers,

  • often allowed to their comrades because each cafe usually only had one newspaper.

  • Manufacturers and wealthy individuals in cities likewise formed groups based on their common

  • class position; they founded chambers of commerce to protect their financial interests and museums

  • to show off their city's achievements and good taste.

  • Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

  • 1.

  • Initially, the rise of factories saw those left out of industrial work life,

  • 2.

  • such as artisans and small farmers,

  • 3.

  • protest by breaking machinery or threatening to do so.

  • 4.

  • TheSwing riotsin Britain are one example of what has been calledprimitiverebellion.

  • 5.

  • Instead of dealing with change by organizing to benefit from and shape the change,

  • 6.

  • so-called primitive rebels went about breaking things.

  • 7.

  • Wreckers of machinery were called Luddites

  • 8. (as they still are today)

  • 9. because menacing notes found alongside sabotage were often signed Ned Ludd.

  • 10.

  • Ludd was an inspirational figure -- a weaver who allegedly smashed a textile machine in

  • the 18th century.

  • 11.

  • But gradually, workers inside the factories formed mutual aid societies

  • 12. and eventually unions that negotiated for better terms with owners.

  • And when negotiations failed,

  • 13.

  • they went on strike as a group instead of wrecking the machines with which they earned

  • their living.

  • 14.

  • All in all, industrialization wreaked havoc on people's lives even as it provided many

  • with livelihoods.

  • 15.

  • Towns grew astronomically: like textile center Manchester England went from 20,000 people

  • in the 1750s to 400,000 a century later.

  • 16.

  • Conditions in Manchester were abominable, including the development of slums, and the

  • spread of disease.

  • 17.