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  • Take a moment to read the following.

  • How was that?

  • Frustrating?

  • Slow?

  • What were those sentences about?

  • They're actually a simulation

  • of the experience of dyslexia,

  • designed to make you decode each word.

  • Those with dyslexia experience that laborious pace

  • every time they read.

  • When most people think of dyslexia,

  • they think of seeing letters and words backwards,

  • like seeing "b" as "d" and vice versa,

  • or they might think people with dyslexia

  • see "saw" as "was".

  • The truth is people with dyslexia

  • see things the same way as everyone else.

  • Dyslexia is caused by a phonological processing problem,

  • meaning people affected by it

  • have trouble not with seeing language

  • but with manipulating it.

  • For example, if you heard the word cat

  • and then someone asked you, "Remove the 'c',"

  • what word would you have left?

  • At.

  • This can be difficult for those with dyslexia.

  • Given a word in isolation,

  • like fantastic,

  • students with dyslexia need to break the word

  • into parts to read it:

  • fan,

  • tas,

  • tic.

  • Time spent decoding makes it hard

  • to keep up with peers

  • and gain sufficient comprehension.

  • Spelling words phonetically,

  • like s-t-i-k

  • for stick

  • and f-r-e-n-s

  • for friends

  • is also common.

  • These difficulties are more widespread and varied

  • than commonly imagined.

  • Dyslexia affects up to one in five people.

  • It occurs on a continuum.

  • One person might have mild dyslexia

  • while the next person has a profound case of it.

  • Dyslexia also runs in families.

  • It's common to see one family member

  • who has trouble spelling

  • while another family member

  • has severe difficulty decoding even one syllable words,

  • like catch.

  • The continuum and distribution of dyslexia

  • suggests a broader principle to bear in mind

  • as we look at how the brains of those with dyslexia

  • process language.

  • Neurodiversity is the idea

  • that because all our brains show differences

  • in structure and function,

  • we shouldn't be so quick to label

  • every deviation from "the norm"

  • as a pathological disorder

  • or dismiss people living with these variations

  • as "defective."

  • People with neurobiological variations like dyslexia,

  • including such creative and inventive individuals

  • as Picasso,

  • Muhammad Ali,

  • Whoopi Goldberg,

  • Steven Spielberg,

  • and Cher,

  • clearly have every capacity

  • to be brilliant and successful in life.

  • So, here's the special way

  • the brains of those with dyslexia work.

  • The brain is divided into two hemispheres.

  • The left hemisphere is generally in charge of language

  • and, ultimately, reading,

  • while the right typically handles spatial activities.

  • fMRI studies have found

  • that the brains of those with dyslexia

  • rely more on the right hemisphere and frontal lobe

  • than the brains of those without it.

  • This means, when they read a word,

  • it takes a longer trip through their brain

  • and can get delayed in the frontal lobe.

  • Because of this neurobiological glitch,

  • they read with more difficulty.

  • But those with dyslexia

  • can physically change their brain

  • and improve their reading

  • with an intensive, multi-sensory intervention

  • that breaks the language down

  • and teaches the reader to decode

  • based on syllable types and spelling rules.

  • The brains of those with dyslexia

  • begin using the left hemisphere

  • more efficiently while reading,

  • and their reading improves.

  • The intervention works

  • because it locates dyslexia appropriately

  • as a functional variation in the brain,

  • which, naturally, shows all sorts of variations

  • from one person to another.

  • Neurodiversity emphasizes this spectrum

  • of brain function in all humans

  • and suggests that to better understand the perspectives

  • of those around us,

  • we should try to not only see the world through their eyes

  • but understand it through their brains.

Take a moment to read the following.

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B2 TED-Ed dyslexia spelling hemisphere brain left hemisphere

【TED-Ed】What is dyslexia? - Kelli Sandman-Hurley

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    阿多賓 posted on 2014/03/22
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