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  • we'll talk a little bit about the history and development of Web technologies with Webb was first invented.

  • It wasn't possible to specify fonts.

  • Three Idea waas The page language HTML would specify the the structure of the content where the headings are, where paragraphs are tables.

  • Lists on Be up to the Upside of brows are up to the viewer, maybe even to take taking into account personal preferences of the user to actually choose which fund to display.

  • The texting tiki commercial sites, but also also authors wanted to have some kind of some kind of influence on how they're how they're content was being presented on Dhe gets back in 1995.

  • They started with Netscape introducing the font tag, but even back then it was only possible to refer to fonts that were actually installed on the computer on DDE.

  • Back then, they weren't really very many standardized funds across many across different systems.

  • Essentially had Helvetica or ah on alternative like such as Ariel in window systems and a serif font such as such as times as well on DDE.

  • Authors had to specify numerous fullbacks and generic families Microsoft introduced and they started the project.

  • In around 96 Andi introduced a dozen or so high quality fonts for Web use really optimized for abuse on dhe.

  • These were published under a freeway license.

  • Everyone could download them, although there were restrictions are modifying them or bundling them in other commercial products.

  • And the result of this was that within a few years, everyone could expect font such as Madonna and Georgia to be on installed on pretty much every system as well as Ariel and Times New Roman.

  • We've done one or two videos on things to do it type faces in the past, often with Professor Browse for it.

  • Why does it matter what typeface things air?

  • If the website is from a from a commercial company, it communicates a certain brand Onda type.

  • Typography is part of this brand's image.

  • I've gotta be honest.

  • This sounds a little bit like selling sales speak mumbo jumbo.

  • Let's go delve under the hood.

  • What's happening?

  • Technically, though, with these funds, I mean, are they now embedded in the website?

  • So what has it worked?

  • Well, phones nowadays are typically where they could be stored on the server, just like anything else in the website, but quite often they're being served by 1/3 party.

  • Companies such as Google or Adobe Type Kit on Dhe from the usage of the phones has also license in such a way quite often per number of views in the case of commercial funds because in the past, for it wasn't really allowed.

  • Toe put commercial fund files on the Internet at least typical installed all funds that we have on the system on a beautif ISMs like true type open type.

  • Andi put these files and make them accessible for the whole whole wide world to download.

  • And that's what was stalling the take up of of Web funds for so long.

  • So it kind of comes down to copyrighted it very much so on.

  • And the way the font industry, I think between, like the late nineties and maybe 10 years later, with the decline of print reformed industry started to see where fonts is less of a threat on dhe.

  • More of a business opportunity.

  • I guess the transformation started when there were numerous attempts at embedding fonts in ways that they don't get downloaded using replacement techniques.

  • Commercial websites would use headings would use images for headings and other largest larger picture pieces of text.

  • But now these replacement techniques were becoming more more complex, using either either flash or scalable vector graphics, which would enable the text to remain searchable by search engines.

  • But still, it wasn't because of the performance issues on various other desert disadvantages.

  • These weren't proper, proper Web funds, and pressure was growing on the industry to find a solution for authors wishing to license fonts for Web use and make them downloadable.

  • Back in the nineties, there were two attempts at a fund format which could be downloaded, couldn't readily be installed and probably the most well known 11 of the of the two was Microsoft's embedded open type B O T.

  • But that only worked in Internet Explorer, and it wasn't open.

  • It used some proprietary encryption algorithms on.

  • That's why there was a pushback from from browser manufacturers on DDE.

  • In getting the format adopted, there's a doubly three stat w three c standard on dhe Azzan Alternative.

  • They came up with Worf.

  • The Web open font format is a what different from what I know of us say maybe a t T F or one of these funds that you install.

  • Yes, yes, yes, it is different.

  • It's, I guess, Windows or your operating system doesn't You can't install it.

  • You can essentially converted into a TTF, but it's missing many features.

  • The commercially bought formed would have, particularly the website in that need it, I guess, and most extreme way it could be subset in such a way that only the characters of the website uses actually appear in the font on.

  • It's possible to have a fund served up service side in such a way.

  • For every single piece of text that you have in the font, more commonly, you'd have a complete alphabet.

  • But, for example, Eastern European characters might be left out some features that are being used, such as ligatures, um, small capitals on dhe.

  • Obviously, the fund also supports any non Latin characters.

  • These would make the front much larger to download On.

  • One of the main benefits of Wolf is a compact file size for manufacturers.

  • Is that the right word for them?

  • Type face house and owners font foundries.

  • Once those funds her out, it's over for them, isn't it?

  • Well, funds to get updated from time to time.

  • A good example good more than a decade ago was that it was the euro symbol, which gave gave him an opportunity to essentially, resell, update and re sell their products.

  • Things like the newer simple being grounded is a main reason what these funds get updated.

  • That's certainly one of the reasons, particularly as foundries look ATT supporting and ever increasing number of non Latin scripts.

  • But also the outlines get re worked on dhe, certainly with respect a Web fonts.

  • A number of funds have been optimized for onscreen use, generally using techniques that date back to the print era, such as a larger X height.

  • The X height is the height of lower case characters in release and respect to the height of of the capital.

  • So when you say you, you increase the X height, that means that the lower case character characters are proportionately larger, so there's less difference between capital and lower case characters, slightly wider characters.

  • Less contrast.

  • Contrast is the difference between the thin strokes and the thick strokes of the typeface on DL.

  • This some helps allege ability, But another issue that Web funds have brought about is that of hinting, and particularly on window systems when Texas displayed a very small sizes.

  • Windows has, ah way of rendering the text, which is very sharp, but that's dependent on extensive hinting information being present in the outlines.

  • What is hinting it is essentially giving it, adding instructions to font toe how how the the outlines should fit to the pixel grit on which compromises should be made.

  • So essentially the shape of the outlines is modified slightly.

  • This was covered, actually, in a previous Sir Compute of our video by Professor Bressler.

  • How do you decide which pick cells of these vertical stems to be colored in?

  • One of the most recent developments is the release of something called open type.

  • Variations are variable funds.

  • Up to now, when a fund has been sold with a variety of styles, you have a normal we'd have a ball with Devon Talley could have a bold italic, for example.

  • But what would a designer do if they wanted something in between a regular and a bold on DDE with variations?

  • It's possible to specify really continuously, the longer something called a variation access a parameter.

  • How much boldness the designer wishes to have.

  • This isn't only for design of potential use, but also for the use of responsive, responsive Web pages.

  • It would be possible to, for example, on a smaller screen or mobile device.

  • Choose a slightly narrower version of the same typeface.

  • What you're talking about there that is effectively halving the parameter like the size but for boldness or tell a Tallis City is that would, well, it Felicity goingto history on telling us.

  • Well, generally, that's something that can't be varied isn't a parameter that it makes sense, at least from a design perspective to make continuous, quite often the shapes for certain typefaces.

  • It's more of a sort of cursive style.

  • Ah, nde.

  • The italics have completely different shapes.

  • It depends on the front.

  • Other parameters will be like I mentioned before the optical scaling.

  • Um to what extent should the X height and excite being increased in the contracts reduced or relative relative width of characters?

  • Do you have is a phone condensed, extended, extra condensed?

  • Andi made you want to really be able to verify that parameter continuously able to get text to fit into a certain certain predefined with This isn't even a new technology multiple master was, I guess, the most well known product, which was available back in the back in the nineties.

  • And that didn't catch on back then.

  • But now, with Web fonts Fonso getting bigger and bigger again because of increased number of features, alternatives on dhe larger character sets on DDE.

  • If it's possible toe, reduce the size of the funds we have to download.

  • If we can download the whole family fun family in one file, which is marginally larger than the kind of files we have for each individual style, then it's obviously very beneficial, also for simply for the delivery of weapons, even if we ignore the additional flexibility that we're getting from them.

  • And that's because the moment you would download the bold version or the italic version on the around or allow these different types will be different types.

  • Yeah, and particular.

  • If you want to have the flexibility of more than just just forced the basic four styles, then you very much, very quickly get to 16 or 32 on, and then it'll grows from there and you end up in France littered with having Fonso several megabytes and size.

  • Now think of people in the Third World who maybe need a non Latin characters support anyway on Dhe.

  • At the same time, we're very low bandwidth connections on that whole disk.

  • Instead of holding 50 or 60 different typefaces, was devoted to holding times Roman hand tuned in about 40 usable point sizes.

  • Stuff like that.

  • The thing that captures going, though the room is on the horizon, if you like where that, too People working for Xerox Parc.

we'll talk a little bit about the history and development of Web technologies with Webb was first invented.

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Web Fonts - Computerphile

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/03/27
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